1.7 Scope of the Study
The study concerning Factors Influencing Project Performance of roads were conducting everywhere throughout the country and there were numerous factors affecting the projects from its inception till to its completion, the researcher was given due attention to identify factors such as availability of financial funding, contractor competencies, consultant commitments, and management practices that were influencing on project performance of URRAP of Borana zone Roads Authority office, and also the study is conducted for the URRAP part of RSDP IV and V from the period of 2011- 2018. The study was adopted descriptive research design and carried out by using simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques and questionnaires for data collection.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The following points was considered as limitation for this study
• Lack of Sufficient time and fund to conduct the research. This was solved by planning the available resources, and using the resources wisely as much as possible.
• The researcher was faced lack of willingness and interest and unfriendly respondents. But this was countered by motivating the respondents and by following up on the questionnaires.
• Another challenge was that some of the respondents filled ambiguous answers while others left blank questions (that is, fail to write their response to some questions such as open ended) in the questionnaires. This was managed by revisiting the same respondents and the researcher noticed that their questionnaires were having ambiguous answers and leave blank questions.
• Absence of organized data from concerned organization, drawbacks in consistency of data, inadequate information, redundant data etc. Searching of data from different sources to make the data valuable.
• Lack of update literature in the study area. The researcher however, fully collected the required update literature through different books, journals, articles, unpublished sources and browsing the internet.
1.9 Definition of Key Terms
Independent entity that agrees to furnish certain number or quantity of goods, material, equipment, personnel, and/or services that meet or exceed stated requirements or specifications, at a mutually agreed upon price and within a specified timeframe to another independent entity called contractor, principal, or project owner
The accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract (BusinessDictionary.Com).
Performance indicator(s):
A particular value or characteristic used to measure output or outcome. These are parameters useful for determining the degree to which an organization has achieved its goals. A quantifiable expression used to observe and track the status of a process. The operational information that is indicative of the performance or condition of a facility, group of facilities, or site.
Performance measurement:
“A process of assessing progress toward achieving predetermined goals, including information on the efficiency with which resources are transformed into goods and services (outputs), the quality of those outputs (how well they are delivered to clients and the extent to which clients are satisfied) and outcomes (the results of a program activity compared to its intended purpose), and the effectiveness of government operations in terms of their specific contributions to program objectives.” (United states FHWA).
“A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside scope of the discrete projects in the program.” – PMBOK pg 368
An activity with a starting date, specific goals and conditions, defined responsibilities, a
budget, planning, a fixed end date and multiple parties involved (Robert K, 2012).
Project Management:
Project management is defined as an “application of knowledge, skills and techniques to execute projects effectively and efficiently (Project Management Institute, 1996). Project management concentrates on the strategic competency for organizations, to enable them to measure project results towards achieving planned organizational goals. specific attention to a clients requirements.
Rural roads:
Rural roads primary function is to serve the needs of rural areas, sometimes linking those areas with the regional urban centers. Low traffic volumes are registered in the rural roads and they are usually simply constructed, graveled paved and without drainage. Rural roads are popular known as feeder routes in Africa.
1.10 Organization of the study
Chapter 1: Introduction
In this chapter the focus is on the following important aspects: Background of the study, statement of the problem, hypothesis, objectives, significance of the study, limitation of the study, research methodology, definition of concepts, as well as organization of the study.
Chapter 2: Literature review
This chapter provides attention on the history of road development in Ethiopia, theoretical review from different scholars, books, journals, articles, government documents and the internet, Empirical Evidence concerning the study as well as Conceptual frame work.
Chapter 3: Research methodology
This chapter focuses on the research methodology that is used by the researcher when conducting the study. The chapter includes research design, data sources and types, data collection, target population, sampling design, sampling plan, sampling techniques, data analysis methods, tools and presentation. It has been also focused on validity and reliability of instruments and ethical issues.
Chapter 4: Presentation and discussion of results
This chapter presents the results obtained from the respondents by means of questionnaire from the sample provided and also includes the demographic profile of respondents. It also incorporated the discussion and interpretations of the findings obtained during the data collection and the analysis of data and synthesis thereof.
Chapter 5: Summary, conclusion and recommendations
The main aim of this chapter is to report on findings and make recommendations. It also links the main findings with the objectives of the study.