A Dissertation Work Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Post Graduate Degree of Master of Engineering in Transportation Engineering Submitted To RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA BHOPAL

A Dissertation Work Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for the Award of Post Graduate Degree of Master of Engineering in Transportation Engineering Submitted To RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA BHOPAL (M.P.) Submitted By Sanjay Patidar 0805CE14ME13 Under the Supervision of Mr. Shashikant Dhobale Asst. Professor Department of Civil Engineering Jawaharlal institute of technology borawan Khargone (M.P.) 451228 2014-2016 Jawaharlal Institute of Technology Borawan (Khargone) Department of Civil Engineering RECOMMENDATION This is to certify that the work embodied in this dissertation entitled DESIGN COMPARISON OF RIGID PAVEMENT BY IRC58-2002 AND IRC58-2011, being submitted by Mr. Sanjay Patidar (0805CE14ME13) in fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of Engineering in Transportation Engineering discipline of Civil Engineering, to Rajiv Gandhi ProudyogikiVishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) during the academic year 2014-2016 is a record of bonafide piece of work, carried out by him under my supervision and guidance. Approved and Supervised By Mr. Shashikant Dhobale Guide Forwarded By Prof. VinayDeulkar Dr. AtulUpadhyay Head, Department of Civil Engineering Principal Jawaharlal Institute of Technology Borawan (Khargone) Department of Civil Engineering CERTIFICATE This is here by certified that the dissertation entitle DESIGN COMPARISON OF RIGID PAVEMENT BY IRC58-2002 AND IRC58-2011 being submitted by Mr. Sanjay Patidar (0805CE14ME13)to the RGPV, Bhopal is a genuine work performed by him. This dissertation here by recommended for the award of Master of Engineering in Transportation Engineering. Internal Examiner External Examiner Date Date Jawaharlal Institute of Technology Borawan (Khargone) Department of Civil Engineering DISSERTATION APPROVAL SHEET The dissertation work entitled DESIGN COMPARISON OF RIGID PAVEMENT BY IRC58-2002 AND IRC58-2011 Submitted by Mr. Sanjay Patidar (0805CE14ME13) is approved as partial fulfillment for the award of the Master of Engineering (Transportation Engineering) degree by Rajiv Gandhi Prodyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (M.P.) Approved and Supervised By Mr. Shashikant Dhobale Guide Principal Jawaharlal Institute of Technology Borawan (Khargone) Department of Civil Engineering DECLARATION I Sanjay Patidar (0805CE14ME013), student of Master of Engineering in Transportation Engineering discipline (CE), 2014-2016, hereby declare that the work presented in this dissertation entitled DESIGN COMPARISON OF RIGID PAVEMENT BY IRC58-2002 AND IRC58-2011 is the outcome of my own work, is bonfire and correct to the best of my knowledge and this work has been carried out taking care of Engineering Ethics. The work presented here does not infringe any patented work and has not been submitted to any other university or anywhere else for the award of any degree or any processional diploma. I also declare that A check for Plagiarism has been carried out on the thesis/Project report/Dissertation and is found within the acceptable limit . and report of which is enclosed herewith. Sanjay Padtiday (0805CE14ME13) Guide Principal PLAGIARISM REPORTS NoTOPIC NAMERESULT (Unique Content)1Chapter 1INTRODUCTION2Chapter 2LITERATURE REVIEW3Chapter 3PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND METHODOLOGY4Chapter 4DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS5Chapter 5CONCLUSION AND FEAUTURE SCOPE OF STUDYTOTAL Source The Anti-plagiarism Scanner (HYPERLINK file///CUsersSHAHDesktopMEFINALwww.smallseotools.complagrism-checkerwww.smallseotools.com/plagrism-checker) Date Time for Checking 11-11-2017 0700 PM Sanjay Patidar (0805CE14ME13) eSa fnukad [email protected]@2015 ls fufer Nk ds i es aLukrdksRrj ikBdze esa v/ujrFkk A eSa kksk.kk djrk gWa wfd bl ikBdze dh vof/k esa fdlh Hkh vU futh kS ds [email protected]@fdlh Hkh dkkZy esa iw.kZdkfyd i ls dkZjr ugh aFkk A gLrkkj kiFk xzfgrk xkbZM ,[email protected] kjklRkfirfdktkos laLFkkdkuketsvkbZVhcksjkaok laLFkkdkdksM 805 nwjHkkk dzekad7285277710 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It gives me immense pleasure to acknowledge my deep sense of gratitude to my respected guide Prof. Shashikant Dhobale, Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering Department for his valuable guidance, complete technical assistance, critical interruptions and offering many innovative ideas and helpful suggestions, which led to the successful completion of this dissertation work. It is really fortunate that I got such an opportunity to learn everything of research from him, which will definitely go a long way in my professional career. I shall always grateful to his guidance and supervision. It has indeed been a privilege to carry out this research work under his supervision. I am deeply indebted and also express my sincere thanks to Mr. Vinay Deulkar Prof. Jitendra Chouhan, Civil Engineering Department, Jawaharlal Institute of Technology Borawan for providing us necessary support resources and possible facilities for successful completion of the work. I am also thankful to Dr. Atul Upadhyay, Principal and Dr. Sunil Sugandhi, Dean Academic, Jawaharlal Institute of Technology, Borawan. Their blessings are the most important strength which always lights not only my path towards success, but also source of inspirations to all the students of our Institute. I am grateful to all teaching and Non-teaching staff of Civil Engineering Department for their timely help and co-operation as well as valuable academic support. I would like to show my sincere gratitude to my family for their constant support, love, guidance, and motivation throughout my life. Last but not least, special regards to all who helped me in anyform to complete my work. Sanjay Patidar (0805CE14ME13) CONTENT ITEM PAGE NO. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Pavement Structure Design Principle Different Pavement Types Pavement Load Carrying Materials for Concrete Base Rigid Pavement Construction Factors Governing Design Of Cement Concrete Pavement Design Of Slab Thickness CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Report Collected From Live Project 3.2 Methodology CHAPTER 4 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Existing Crust details of NH-59A 4.2 Treatment on existing Road after declaration as NH-59A 4.3Connectivity of Existing road NH-59A 4.4 Structural status of the road NH-59A 4.5 Failure criteria of existing road NH-59A 4.6 Necessity of work 4.7 Provision of IRC 4.8 Total traffic survey 4.8.1 FOR BOTTOM UP CRACKING (10AM to 4 PM) 4.8.2 FOR TOP DOWN CRACKING (00 to 6 am) 4.8.3 DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENTS CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND FEAUTURE SCOPE OF STUDY REFFERENCES OUR PUBLICATIONS List of Tables TABLE PAGE NO. Grading of The Fine Aggregate 1.2 Grading of aggregate 1.3 Grading of aggregate 1.4 Test methods standard 1.5 Design Traffic for Estimation of Concrete Pavement Thickness 1.6 Value of Modulus of Sub-grade Reaction (k) 1.7 Different Ways of Providing Sub-base 1.8 Effective k value over Granular and Cementitious Sub-bases 1.9 Recommended Temperature Differentials for Concrete Slabs 1.10- Recommended Values of Co-efficient C 4.1 detailed traffic volume survey 4.2 Inventory Data 4.3 Total traffic survey 4.4 For bottom up cracking 4.5 For top down cracking 4.6 Design of rigid pavements 4.7 category wise axel repetitions for bottom-up top-down cracking 4.8 K39 at CBR 3 4.9 K63 at CBR 10 4.10 K92 at CBR 30 4.11 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Bottom-up Cracking (For IRC 582011) 4.12 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Bottom-up Cracking (For IRC 582002) 4.13 Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-Time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature Differential at 30mm thickness and k39 4.14 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Top-Down Cracking (IRC582011) 4.15 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Top-Down Cracking (IRC582002) 4.16 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Values for Four Trial Thicknesses (for Bottom-up Cracking) List of Figures FIGURE PAGE NO. Pavement Types Load Carrying (a) stresses at bottom during the day and (b) at top during the night 3.1 Methodology 4.1 The crust details from km. 24 to 41 4.2 The crust details from km. 42 to 77 4.3 The crust details from km. 78 to 92 ABSTRACT The design and construction of the roadbed for any pavement structure is key to its long-term performance and smoothness over time. A roadbed is characterized by the layer(s) that provide the foundation for the riding surface. For concrete pavement, the foundation is typically comprised of a subbase layer on top of the subgrade soil. A variety of engineered subbase materials and subgrade treatment methods exist for use with concrete pavement. Careful attention to the design and construction of sub grades and subbases is essential to ensure the structural capacity, stability, uniformity, durability, and smoothness of any concrete pavement over the life of that pavement. Of utmost importance is the uniformity of the foundation. This bulletin publication discusses each essential factor and provides the necessary background information for the proper selection and application of subbases and the appropriate consideration of subgrade variables for concrete pavements used for streets, roads, and highways. Key words – subbase, subgrade, structural capacity, stability, uniformity ,durability, concrete pavement, CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The design and construction of the roadbed for any pavement structure is key to its long-term performance and smoothness over time. A roadbed is characterized by the layer(s) that provide the foundation for the riding surface. For concrete pavement, the foundation is typically comprised of a sub base layer on top of the subgrade soil. A variety of engineered sub base materials and sub grade treatment methods exist for use with concrete pavement. Careful attention to the design and construction of sub grades and sub bases is essential to ensure the structural capacity, stability, uniformity, durability, and smoothness of any concrete pavement over the life of that pavement. Of utmost importance is the uniformity of the foundation. This bulletin publication discusses each essential factor and provides the necessary background information for the proper selection and application of sub bases and the appropriate consideration of subgrade variables for concrete pavements used for streets, roads, and highways. Because the terminology for engineered roadbeds is unique and sometimes unfamiliar to pavement design engineers, an extensive glossary of terms is includedThe key terms necessary for discerning between concrete and asphalt pavement structures are 1.1 Pavement Structure The combination of asphalt/concrete surface course(s) and base/subbase course(s) placed on a prepared subgrade to support the traffic load. Base A layer within an asphalt pavement structure usually a granular or stabilized material, either previously placed and hardened or freshly placed, on which the pavement surface is placed in a later operation. Base Course The layer(s) of hot mix asphalt immediately below the surface course, generally consisting of less asphalt and larger aggregates than the surface course. Also known as binder course (AI 2007). Subbase The layer(s) of select or engineered material of planned thickness placed between the subgrade and a concrete pavement that serve one or more functions such as preventing pumping, distributing loads, providing drainage, minimizing frost action, or facilitating pavement construction. Common subbase types include unstabilized (granular) subbase, cement-treated subbase, lean concrete (econocrete) subbase and apshalt-treated subbase. Subgrade The natural ground, graded and com – pacted, on which a pavement structure is built. 1.2 Design Principles Understanding the basic premise and principle of foundation design for concrete pavement requires knowledge of how concrete slabs transfer loads from vehicles to the subgrade. Compared to asphalt pavements, concrete pavements spread a given load over a larger area of the roadbed or foundation which, in-turn, reduces the pressure on the support layer materials and subgrade. The importance is that the foundation strength is not as important to the performance of concrete as it is to asphalt pavement, even when considering pavements for heavy loads. Although subbase and subgrade strength are important factors in pavement design, other foundation properties besides strength need to be considered in the design of a foundation for concrete pavement. Every foundation for use in a concrete pavement structure should provide the following characteristics Uniformity no abrupt changes in character of the materials (i.e., weak spots or stiff spots). Control of expansive subgrade materials to ensure uniform support through wet and dry seasons. Resistance to frost heave during winter and cold temperatures. Resistance to erosion by slabs that deflect under heavy loads. Of these characteristics, uniform support is of utmost importance. Providing uniformity is also one of the largest challenges in the design and construction of any pavement structure. Because every foundation design starts with the in-situ natural soils, the challenge always begins with the subgrade. In practical terms, the subgrade must, at least, provide a stable working platform for constructing the subsequent layers of the pavement structure. The potential for frost heaving and/or shrinkage and swelling of subgrade materials must be assessed by the engineer during the design phase. The methods available to address expansive subgrade materials are selective grading and/or chemical modification (commonly referred to as soil stabilization) of the insitu soils. Both of these subgrade conditions (e.g. frost heave and shrink/swell) should be considered separately from providing pavement support, but are inherently part of the primary goal of providing a uniform foundation. In other words, even though a subgrade can be compacted and prepared to provide adequate support for construction activities and future traffic loading, it may be a poor foundation for a concrete pavement if the subgrade is prone to volume change from swelling, shrinking, or heaving. Therefore, the expansive potential of the subgrade must be evaluated and controlled. Preparation of the subgrade includes Compacting soils at moisture contents and densities that will ensure uniform and stable pavement support. Whenever possible, setting the profile gradeline at an elevation that will allow adequate depth in the side ditches to protect the pavement structure from the water table. Improving expansive or weak soils by treatment with Portland cement, fly ash, cement kiln dust (CKD), lime, or alternatively, importing better soils. Cross-hauling and mixing of soils to achieve uniform conditions in areas where there are abrupt horizontal changes in soil types. Using selective grading in cut-and-fill areas to place the better soils closer to the top of the final subgrade elevation. Fine grading the top of the subgrade to meet specified grade tolerances in the specifications and for thickness control of the subbase and/or the concrete pavement. Perfect subgrade materialsthose that would economically meet all design criteriaare rarely encountered in nature. This is particularly true of materials that would be used in heavily trafficked pavement. For this reason, a subbase layer provides an added measure of assurance that both uniform support and a non-erodible layer are provided for the concrete pavement slabs. Subbases consist of engineered materials or materials that are produced and controlled to a specification. 1.3 Different Pavement Types Figure 1.1 Pavement Types Concrete acts more like a bridge over the subgrade. Inch-for-Inch much less pressure is placed on material below concrete than asphalt pavements. 1.4 Pavement Load Carrying Figure 1.2 Load Carrying Concretes Rigidness spreads the load over a large area and keeps pressures on the sub-grade low. 1.5 Materials for Concrete Base Cement and Flyash Cement shall be Type GP Portland cement complying with AS 3972. When submitting details of the nominated mix in accordance with Clause 5.03.3 the Contractor shall nominate the brand and source of the cement. On approval of a nominated mix by the Superintendent, the Contractor shall use only the nominated cement in the work. Documentary evidence of the quality and source of the cement shall be furnished by the Contractor to the Superintendent upon request at any stage of the work. If the Contractor proposes to use cement which has been stored for a period in excess of three months from the time of manufacture, a re-test shall be required to ensure the cement still complies with AS 3972, before the cement is used in the work. The cost of re-testing the cement shall be borne by the Contractor and results of the testing forwarded to the Superintendent. Cement shall be transported in watertight containers and shall be protected from moisture until used. Caked or lumpy cement shall not be used. The use and quality of flyash shall comply with AS 3582.1. When submitting details of the nominated mix in accordance with Clause 5.03.3, the Contractor shall nominate the powerhouse source of the flyash. The Contractor shall use only flyash from the nominated powerhouse. Documentary evidence of the quality and source of the flyash shall be furnished by the Contractor to theSuperintendent. Aggregates General In addition to properties specified in AS 2758.1, the maximum soluble sulphate salt content of aggregates, expressed as percentage SO3 by mass, shall not exceed 0.1 . Aggregates containing more than the maximum permissible amount of sulphates or with visible encrustations of salts shall be washed and drained before being used in concrete. The Superintendent may direct washing or rewashing of the aggregates until he is satisfied that harmful quantities of salts are not present. At least 40 per cent by mass of the total aggregates in the concrete mix shall be quartz sand. Quartz sand is aggregate having a nominal size of less than 5mm and shall contain at least 70 per cent quartz, by mass. Where present, chert fragments will be regarded as quartz for the purpose of this specification, but the ratio of chert to quartz shall not exceed unity. Coarse and fine aggregates shall be washed as necessary or directed to acilitate achievement of the specified drying shrinkage. (ii) Fine Aggregates Fine aggregate shall consist of clean, hard, tough, durable, uncoated grains uniform in quality. Fine aggregate shall comply with AS 2758.1 in respect of bulk density (1200 kg/m3 minimum), water absorption (maximum 5 per cent), material finer than 2 micrometres, and impurities and reactive materials. The sodium sulphate soundness, determined by AS 1141.24, shall not exceed the limits in Table below Table 1.1 Grading of The Fine Aggregate The grading of the fine aggregate, determined by AS 1141.11, shall be within the limits given in Table below When submitting details of the nominated mix the Contractor shall submit to the Superintendent a NATA Certified Laboratory Test Report on the quality and grading of the fine aggregate proposed to be used. The grading shall be known as the proposed fine aggregate grading. Table 1. 2 Grading of aggregate (iii) Course Aggregates Coarse aggregate shall consist of clean, crushed, hard durable rock, metallurgical furnace slag or gravel. Coarse aggregate shall comply with AS 2758.1 in respect of particle density, bulk density, water absorption (maximum 2.5 per cent), material finer than 75 micrometres, weak particles, light particles, impurities and reactive materials, iron unsoundness and falling or dusting unsoundness. In all other respects, the coarse aggregate shall comply with this Specification. If required, coarse aggregate shall be washed to satisfy these requirements. The grading of the coarse aggregate, determined by AS 1141.11, shall be within the limits given in Table below When submitting details of the nominated mix the Contractor shall submit to the Superintendent a NATA Certified Laboratory Test Report on the quality and grading of the coarse aggregate proposed to be used. The grading shall be known as the proposed coarse aggregate grading. Table 1.3 Grading of aggregate The coarse aggregate shall also conform to the requirements of Table as follows Table 1.4 Test methods standard 1.6 Rigid Pavement Construction Before commencing production of each concrete mix, the Contractor must Conduct trial mixes to demonstrate that the proposed mix designs comply with this Specification Certify that each nominated mix and its constituents meet the requirements of this Specification Submit NATA endorsed test results for all relevant tests Trial mixing must comply strictly with the Contractors proposed mix design, including the dilution and incorporation of admixtures, and the sequence of addition of materials. Details of the concrete mix designed by the Contractor shall be submitted for approval at least six (6) weeks before production commences. Information required is itemised below The following details are required for each nominated mix-a. Material Constituents Cement – brand and source. Fly ash – powerhouse source. Admixtures – proprietary source, type, name and dosage recommended by manufacturer. Aggregates – source, geological type, moisture condition on which mix design is based (oven dry, saturated surface dry or nominated moisture content). Relevant test results for all constituents. Test results for soluble salt content, Mix Design Constituent quantities, per yielded cubic metre of concrete. Nominated particle size distribution of aggregates, including fine, coarse and combined particle size distributions. Test Results for each trial batch including cement content and fly ash content per yielded cubic metre of concrete compressive strength at age seven (7) days compressive strength at age twenty eight (28) days flexural strength at age seven (7) days flexural strength at age twenty eight (28) days drying shrinkage after twenty one days (21) air drying and air content. 1.7 FACTORS GOVERNING DESIGN OF CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT The factors governing design of cement concrete pavement have been discussed below i) Wheel Load Heavy vehicles are not expected on rural roads. The maximum legal load limit on single axle with dual wheels in India being 100KN, the recommended design load on dual wheels is 50 KN having a spacing of the wheels as 310 mm centre to centre. ii) Tyre Pressure For a truck carrying a dual wheel load of 50 KN the tyre pressure may be taken as 0.80 MPa and for a wheel of tractor trailer, the tyre pressure may be taken as 0.50 MPa. iii) Design Period The design period is generally taken 20 years for cement concrete pavement. Design Traffic for Thickness Evaluation The design traffic for estimation of concrete pavement thickness has been given in table Table1.5 Design Traffic for Estimation of Concrete Pavement Thickness For the fatigue analysis of a concrete pavement the cumulative number of commercial traffic at the end of design period can be estimated from the following equation Where, A Initial CVPD after the completion of the road ( ) r Rate of traffic increase in decimal (for 5 rate of increase in traffic, r 0.05) PI Initial/ Present CVPD as per traffic census x Construction period n Design period in years (recommended as 20 years) N Total number of cumulative commercial vehicles at the end of the design period v) Characteristics of the Sub-grade The strength of sub-grade is expressed in terms of modulus of sub-grade reaction (k). Since, the sub-grade strength is affected by the moisture content, it is desirable to determine it soon after the monsoons. The approximate k value corresponding to California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value is given in table Table1.6 Value of Modulus of Sub-grade Reaction (k) 11 vi) Sub-base A good quality compacted foundation layer provided below a concrete pavement is commonly termed as sub-base. It provides the concrete pavement a uniform firm support and acts as a leveling course below the pavement. Sub-base can be provided below the concrete pavement in three ways depending upon volume of traffic as shown in table Table1.7 Different Ways of Providing Sub-base The effective modulus of sub-grade reaction (k) over granular and cement treated sub-base is shown in table. The effective k value for the Granular Sub-Base (GSB) may be taken 1.2 times the k value of the sub-grade. Similarly, for cementitious sub-base, the effective k value may be taken 2 times the k value of soil sub-grade. Table 1.8 Effective k value over Granular and Cementitious Sub-bases 11 Since, concrete pavement fails due to bending stresses, it is necessary that their design is based on the flexural strength of concrete Where, ff Flexural strength, MPa fck Characteristics compressive cube strength, Mpa Fatigue means weakening or breakdown of concrete material subject to repeated series of stresses. For rural roads with traffic exceeding 150 CVPD, fatigue behavior of pavement slab may be calculated from the fatigue equation Where, Nf Fatigue life of concrete pavement Allowable load repetitions The ratio of expected load repetitions (Ne) and allowable load repetitions (Nf) is termed as cumulative fatigue damage and its value should be less than 1. Assuming that only 10 of the total traffic has axle loads equal to 100 KN, the number of repetitions of 100 KN axle loads expected in 20 years can be calculated 1.8 DESIGN OF SLAB THICKNESS 1) Critical Stress Condition Two different regions in a concrete pavement slab i.e. edge and corner are considered critical for pavement design. Effect of temperature gradient is very less at the corner, while it is much higher at the edge. Concrete pavement undergo a daily cyclic change of temperature differentials, the top being hotter than the bottom during the day and opposite is the case during the night. The consequent tendency of pavement slab to curl upwards (top convex) during the day and downwards (top concave) during the night, and restraint offered to the curling by self-weight of the pavement induces stresses in the pavement, referred to commonly as curling stresses. These stresses are flexural in nature, being tensile, at bottom during the day (a) and at top during the night (b). P Single wheel load, N Pd Load on one wheel of dual wheel set, N Sd Spacing between the centers of dual wheel, mm p Tyre pressure, MPa ii) Temperature stresses at edge Table 1.9 Recommended Temperature Differentials for Concrete Slabs 11 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE RIVIEW The design and construction of the roadbed for any pavement structure is key to its long term performance and smoothness over time. A roadbed is characterized by the layer(s) that provide the foundation for the riding surface. For concrete pavement, the foundation is typically comprised of a subbase layer on top of the subgrade soil. A variety of engineered subbase materials and subgrade treatment methods exist for use with concrete pavement. Careful attention to the design and construction of sub grades and subbases is essential to ensure the structural capacity, stability, uniformity, durability, and smoothness of any concrete pavement over the life of that pavement. Of utmost importance is the uniformity of the foundation. In literature it is discusses for each essential factor and provides the necessary background information for the proper selection and application of subbases and the appropriate consideration of subgrade variables for concrete pavements used for streets, roads, and highways. (Narender Singh, 2015) Author said India is an agriculture based country and more than 70 percent of the population is residing in the rural areas. The rural traffic consisting mostly agricultural tractors/trailers, goods vehicles, buses, animal driven vehicles, autorickshaws, motor cycles, bi-cycles, light or medium trucks carrying sugarcane, quarry material etc. The road passing through a village/built-up area usually found damaged due to poor drainage of water. Therefore, flexible pavement in the built-up area is to be substituted with the concrete pavement to make it durable and to avoid wastage of nation money on repeated treatments. The different aspects of design of concrete pavement should be taken care prior to construction for making the same durable and cost effective. The guidelines contained in IRC SP 62-2014 are applicable for low volume roads with average daily traffic less than 450 Commercial Vehicles per Day (CVPD). (Surender Singh, Dr.S.N.Sachdeva, 2015) Author said The main factors affecting the thickness of the cement concrete pavement are subgrade strength axle load repetitions, type of sub-base and shoulders. Well-designed and maintained shoulders are an important part of cement concrete pavement. They do not only give lateral support to the pavement slab but also protect the edges of high volume highway pavements by reducing the edge flexural stress. Moreover, this widened part can be used by vehicles as an extra lane, thereby maintaining the Level of service and can be used for parking in populated urban areas and if rough texture is provided to it, will bring in additional safety to vehicles, particularly during night hours. This will also cut the economy of the future project as this widened part itself can be extended to make a new lane. The subgrade strength in case of cement concrete pavement is expressed in terms of modulus of subgrade reaction, which is determined by plate load test. As conducting the plate load test involves a number of complexities, it will be usual to indirectly check the modulus of subgrade reaction from the CBR value of soil using the relationships between CBR and k value given in IRC 58. The design of rigid pavement follow guidelines given in IRC 58-2011. The design has been carried out for different subbase such as dry lean concrete of 100 mm thickness, granular subbase of 150 mm thickness and cement treated subbase of 100 mm thickness with tied and untied shoulders and CBR value of subgrade varying from 2 to 10 and then selecting the best possible subgrade soil, subbase material and shoulders that can support the pavement effectively and economically. A design life of 30 years is considered in this study. The total traffic in the year of completion of construction is taken as 2000 commercial vehicles per day in each direction. The traffic growth rate is taken as 7.5 percent. The percentage of front single axle, rear single axle, rear tandem axle and the rear tridem axle are taken as 45, 15, 25 and 15 respectively. The percentage of commercial vehicles with spacing between the front axle and the first rear axle less than 4.5m is taken as 55 and it is assumed that 50 of the vehicles travel during the night hours. Design flexural strength of concrete is taken as 4.95 mPa with a unit weight of concrete as 24kN/m3 and elastic modulus as 30000 MPa. Table 12 shows the category wise design axle load repetitions for both bottom up and top down crackings analysis. Rural roads connecting major roads are sometimes required to carry diverted traffic which may damage the concrete pavement slabs. Such factors may be considered while arriving at thickness of concrete pavements. It is well established that the concrete pavements demand a high degree of professional expertise at the design stage as the defective design may lead to concrete failure even if the construction is done with great care. Indian Roads Congress has issued the first revision of IRC SP 62 in 2014 for design and construction of concrete pavement for low volume of roads. In this paper, efforts have been made to elaborate the different design aspects of concrete pavement for rural roads which will be helpful for the young engineers and research scholars. The concrete pavement for rural roads perform well under poor drainage conditions and thus avoid wastage of resources on repeated treatment of flexible pavement. The proper design of concrete pavement will definitely help to make it durable and cost effective. The technical institutions should enforce the design aspects of concrete pavement for the optimum benefit of young engineers and research scholars. (Nagesh Tatoba Suryawanshi, 2012) Fly ash is generated in huge quantities every day in major thermal power stations of Maharashtra. The safe disposal of this fly ash is the major socio-economic problem before the authorities and is becoming a costly affair for them. Conventional method of concrete road construction consumes the natural resources like stone metal, sand, murum etc. and hence causes ecological imbalance. The use of fly ash in concrete road construction will save such resources. The cement is also costly ingredient of concrete. A part of cement and sand can be replaced by good quality fly ash to the extent of 10-30 percent and 5-15 percent respectively. This would results in lowering cost of resultant concrete without any loss in strength. The use of fly ash will solve the disposal problem and automatically reduce the construction cost. Hence this paper is aimed to describe the use of fly ash in rigid pavement construction. Because of the use of fly ash, rigid pavement behaves as a semi rigid pavement causing substantial reduction in cost of construction. If the fly ash is utilized on large scale for road construction, the infrastructure development can be completed at lesser cost and will also help for environmental protection of our country. This paper also deals with techno-economic analysis of fly ash reinforced cement concrete over the flexible and rigid pavements. It was concluded that Fly ash is the fine, waste product produced in thermal power plants. The safe disposal is the major problem for fly ash. The disposal problem is too hazardous that neighboring climate is polluted by suspended fly ash in air and causes nullification of plants. Human beings also have to face bronchial and lungs diseases. Due to this problem and storage difficulties, it is available abundantly in the thermal power plants. As the fly ash increases the pozzollanic properties of cement concrete, it can be used for replacing the cement in various percentage. Now a days fly ash is also used as ingredient in cement production. It has been found that fly ash cement concrete does not gain appreciable strength in the initial 7-14 days. But in 28 days cement constituents and pozzolanic reaction results in rapid hardening properties. The study of graphs of compressive strength v/s percentage replacement and flextural strength v/s percentage replacement shows that optimum results are obtained at 25 percent replacement of cement by fly ash. Using this replacing percentage in experimental work it has been found that after 28 days the results on ordinary concrete and fly ash concrete are nearly same. It is also observed that fly ash mixed simply reinforced cement concrete pavement proves economical over convention flexible pavements and rigid pavements. For medium traffic and 2 CBR, it is observed that initial construction cost of flexible pavement and rigid pavement with fly ash and reinforcement is nearly same it has also been concluded that construction of rigid pavement with fly ash saves rupees one lakh per km and proves economical over rigid pavements. It has been concluded that adoption of fly ash in road construction works will result in the less depletion of naturally available stone metal, gravel, sand and soil. Use of fly ash in rigid pavement construction will save cement, which is the costliest ingredient will lead to reduction in construction cost. It will also help to solve the problem of safe disposal of the fly ash. However to achieve this objective, proper characterization of fly ash is necessary. With adequate knowledge on performance of fly ash based road pavements, a huge demand can be expected from the road sector to use fly ash for construction purposes. CHAPTER 3 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Report Collected From Live Project Name of work Detailed Estimate for Two Lane Paved Shoulder with Rigid Pavement i/c Construction of Bridges Culvert in Km. 24 to 92 on NH-59A (Indore Betul Road) Existing embankment details of NH-59A – Most of the proposed length in km. 24 to 92 passes through B. C. Soil area. In km. 24 to 41 and km 70 to 92 existing embankment including crust is nearly 50 cm average above ground level. 3.2 MEHODOLOGY Figure 3.1 Methodology CHAPTER 4 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Existing Crust details of NH-59A – The crust details from km. 24 to 92 as below – Figure 4.1 The crust details from km. 24 to 41 Figure 4.2 The crust details from km. 42 to 77 Figure 4.3 The crust details from km. 78 to 92 4.2 Treatment on existing Road after declaration as NH-59A – The existing road was widened from single lane to two lane after declaration of NH – 59 A. Details as Under – Widening work from km 24 to 41 by State PWD NH in year 2010. Widening work From Km. 42 to 77 by NHAI in year 2013. Widening work From Km. 78 to 92 by State PWD NH Division in year 2010. 4.3 Structural status of the road NH-59A- The deterioration of structure of the Highway network is aggravated by continuous growth of traffic. The development of distress in a road, leading ultimately to failure can be considered as a continuation of the development of irreversible strain in the road, after a period of initial compaction, due to repeated loading or one or more elements of the road above critical values of stress and strain. Structural condition of pavement deteriorates with time due to the combined effect of traffic and climate resulting in increased functional deterioration can be predicted mainly through three types of parameters, namely. Pavement rebound deflection, rut depth, and cracking of 29 pavement surface. Structural and functional damages and keeping in view the fact that the renewal course applied on structually deficient pavementhas reduced life and optimum durability of the renewal is not obtained. 4.4Connectivity of Existing road NH-59A- Indore Betul Road NH-59 A isvery heavy traffic intensity corridor. It connects Indore to Maharashtraalso cater traffic from Gujrat and Rajasthan. 4.5Failure Criteria ofexisting roadNH-59A-A pavement is designedagainst an assumed design life. After the expiry of the designed period, thepavement is likely to fail structurally, and therefore it would require amajor renewal to extend its life further. Top BT surface of the road isalways likely to be subjected to considerably various types and forms ofpavementdistresses duringitsentire design life, which may occursimultaneously, because manyofthe distressare interrelated and theoccurrence of one may as well initiate the other mainly due to the movement of vehicles thermal variations and climatic effects, which causes various types of defects in the pavement surface. Individual assessment and quantification of distresses may not therefore be very useful, rather there is need to assess the functional condition of the pavements a whole as per the Indian specification for classifying pavement condition. 4.6 Necessity of work Details of road under study – Data regarding details of crust thickness, road inventory data, BBD data, and traffic volume survey have been collected. The details are given in the subsequent sections. Photographs were taken from Km 24 to Km 92 to know the failure patterns and their causes. The Indore-Betul road NH-59 A is a very heavy traffic intensity corridor, it connects Indore to Maharashatra and also cater traffic from Rajasthan and Gujrat. In the year 2000 this road was declared as new N.H, since then various renewal and strengthening program have been given on different sections of the road upto Dewas District in total length of 126 Km. The premature failure of these renewals and strengthening programs caused traffic jams and accidents. Old SH-22 declared as NH-59A road and most of its portion runs through black cotton soil, it has been observed that pavement has not been rehabilitated properly before application of renewal surfaces, and major cause of fast deterioration is due to poor routine and periodical maintenance and delayed in schedule renewals which has caused more structural and functional damages and keeping in view the fact that the renewal coarse applied on structurally deficient pavement has reduced life and optimum durability of the renewal is not obtained. It has become major cause of concern to upgrade the road with the minimum funds available to achieve required quality level of service. In km 126 Narmada River situated and most of sand mining transportation work with overloading passes through proposed part of road. This is the main cause of damage of road with overloading at the right side of the road. by engaging adequate number of enumerators at Kannod Town in Km 90/2, Format of detailed traffic volume survey is given below – Table 4.1 detailed traffic volume survey during investigation such as standard. It is find out in their report that the entire stretch shows extensive rutting and alligator cracking, which shows symptoms of second stage of pavement failure. Major portion of the highway runs through black cotton soil area which has also resulted in edge heaving failure at several places, the National Highway passes through a number of small towns, the condition of the road in these stretches is bad due to poor drainage and water collecting in the National Highways. The shoulders in these reaches need to be dozed to below road level and properly designed cement concrete drains need to be provided at the edge with an out flow into a low lying area, the shoulder also need to be provided with hard surface to prevent formation of slush in these sections. Provision Following Provision are made Improvement of existing embankment and reconstruction with Rigid Pavement as per IRC – 58 2011 From Km 24 to Km 92. It is found that existing base is weak in different stretches, which is damaged mainly due to weak sub grade, sub base and granular base course, existing sub grade CBR in this portion is less than 8 and height of embankment is insufficient also. Therefore its adequate to provide GSB 200 mm, DLC – 150 mm, PQC M-40 – 300 mm thick as per design by IRC – 58 2015 for CBR 8 and cumulative traffic of 3977 CVPD for period of 30 years. Reconstruction of existing narrow culverts/CDs Narrow culverts In Km. 29/2, 31/6, 45/4, 46/6, 59/2, 61/2, 63/6, 80/8A, 80/8B, 80/8C, 83/4, 90/2, 90/8A, 90/8B, 90/10, 92/2, 92/6, 92/10 18 Nos., are replaced by new Slab Culverts in 14.00 meter width. Reconstruction of existing narrow bridge (i) Major Bridge – In Km. 48/6 85/6, Existing bridge is submersible, which is replaced by High Level Major Bridge, Hydrulic data for bridge as per IRC – 5 and details of slab with girder as per MORTH drawing for 18 meter Span no. SD/231, SD/232. SD/233, SD/234, SD/235, SD/236 has been adopted. (ii) Minor Bridge In Km. 25/2, 34/6, 35/4, 36/4, 40/8, 54/4, 67/6, 88/10 08 Nos., are already high level minor bridges but it is narrow, so it will be replaced by high level Minor Bridge in 16.00 Meter width. The opening is design by hydraulic calculation and is kept same as existing opening. Hydrulic data for bridge as per IRC – 5 and details of slab with girder as per MORTH drawing for 18 meter span no. SD/231, SD/232. SD/233, SD/234, SD/235, SD/236 and for 10 meter span no. SD/114 has been adopted. In Km. 66/4, 81/6, 82/6, 88/6 04 Nos. very old submersible/ Flush Cause Way and submersible culvert replaced by High Level Minor Bridge, opening is designed by hydraulic calculation. Hydrulic data for bridge as per IRC – 5 and details of slab with girder as per MORTH drawing for 18 meter span no. SD/231, SD/232. SD/233, SD/234, SD/235, SD/236 and for 10 meter span no. SD/114 has been adopted. In Km. 63/10 01 No., is narrow high level minor bridge exist on curve in hilly area (Ghat Portion) its approaches are on Its approaches is in sharp curves and gradient are not proper. The modification in alignment including construction of a bridge is proposed. This will improve the geometrics of road. Hydrulic data for bridge as per IRC – 5 and details of slab with girder as per MORTH drawing for 18 meter span no. SD/231, SD/232. SD/233, SD/234, SD/235, SD/236 and for 10 meter span no. SD/114 has been adopted. 4. Geomatrical improvement in Ghat Portion im Km. 63/10. Geomatrical imprvement in ghat portion in Km. 63/8 to 64/2 has been included in the estimate to avoid sharp turn as well as to improve gradient. Table 4.3 Total traffic survey- SR NO.TIMECAR/JEEP/ VANS / THREE WHEELERSBUSESTRUCKSMULTI EXCEL I/C ARTIVEH TRUCK TRA. COMBINATIONMOTOR CYCLE TWO WHEELEROTHER VEHICLES AGR. TRACTORS TOTAL OF COLUMN 3 TO 8 TOTAL TRAFFIC OF COMM. VEHICLES CYCLE ANIMAL DRAWNOTHERSTOTAL OF COLUMN 11 TO 131234567891011121314DAY 11700 AM40205457261972132800 AM3765575352083363900 AM5787015058343731041000 AM102118221264471641051100 AM6185611077312061200 AM4020601055728207100 PM67770107823334268200 PM845102203364303149300 PM10697175683652271110400 PM77712823521466153811500 PM898103141135476951412600 PM921710718917457943713700 PM10557512612243323514800 PM1407351301374492215900 PM11564790823400161000 PM10846583212810171100 PM10134595202640180000 AM862529412246019100 AM61124888102192220200 AM42427485126021300 AM48532577149022400 AM3817129518180023500 AM5258709144024600 AM237284322123426TOTAL177120313682778149176115523794AVERAGE74857116623172024PCU CONVERSION FACTOR0.501.50DAY 21700 AM271730103662433252800 AM69133195802882133900 AM61224012511636442641000 AM6918581235732521351100 AM782168757231423561200 AM741442129923511522197100 PM7724528051284526138200 PM69236713010939822379300 PM611970955229742610400 PM6018351307631934711500 PM108191192128153943712600 PM76235312252326013700 PM3613247555203014800 PM803376472256015900 PM10554092693110161000 PM9642882482580171100 PM6132545441780180000 AM262183624106019100 AM445244812133020200 AM52523442126021300 AM4054082167022400 AM121281951023500 AM241342469714119123124600 AM41364554149437TOTAL1446304980209712937612769644119AVERAGE601341875402553025DAY 31700 AM491137106492525382800 AM11519521123533303900 AM1332847173764575251241000 AM142135212512946118244251100 AM8649731536042152761200 AM1052045969436056117100 PM110235410611240585138200 PM80292763282273112169300 PM902123885727913372310400 PM85152276682663251011500 PM135315020312454383152612600 PM97326621011652110361913700 PM6430359428251821014800 PM312150781719732515900 PM7264714587357325161000 PM9452240904760171100 PM3737113211810180000 AM33323959163019100 AM27241087148020200 AM423177513150021300 AM34236833158022400 AM52910953169023500 AM4215655127024600 AM34846875412210TOTAL1789445112825791141417123971496207AVERAGE7519471074822974149AVERAGE 3 DAYS166931711592485130816695474759140TOTAL COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 3977 FACTOR12.22.22.20.540.51.5PCU166969725505467654643711 PCU AVERAGE 3 DAYS X Factor Sum of all PCU 11149 Table 4.4 FOR BOTTOM UP CRACKING (10AM to 4 PM) SR NO.TIMECAR/JEEP/ VANS / THREE WHEELERSBUSESTRUCKSMULTI EXCEL I/C ARTIVEH TRUCK TRA. COMBINATIONMOTOR CYCLE TWO WHEELEROTHER VEHICLES AGR. TRACTORS TOTAL OF COLUMN 3 TO 8 TOTAL TRAFFIC OF COMM. VEHICLES CYCLE ANIMAL DRAWNOTHERSTOTAL OF COLUMN 11 TO 131234567891011121314DAY 111100 AM6185611077312021200 AM4020601055728203100 PM67770107823334264200 PM845102203364303145300 PM1069717568365227116400 PM777128235214661538TOTAL4355642393553423831421329AVERAGE73971156893972025PCU CONVERSION FACTOR0.501.50DAY 211100 AM782168757231423521200 AM741442129923511522193100 PM7724528051284526134200 PM69236713010939822375300 PM61197095522974266400 PM60183513076319347TOTAL419119334639452019633162057AVERAGE70205610775032751310DAY 311100 AM8649731536042152721200 AM1052045969436056113100 PM110235410611240585134200 PM80292763282273112165300 PM90212388572791337236400 PM851522766826632510TOTAL556157244582419019583763780AVERAGE9326419770032661613AVERAGE 3 DAYS470111334719468021012752355 Table 4.5 FOR TOP DOWN CRACKING (00 to 6 am) SR NO.TIMECAR/JEEP/ VANS / THREE WHEELERSBUSESTRUCKSMULTI EXCEL I/C ARTIVEH TRUCK TRA. COMBINATIONMOTOR CYCLE TWO WHEELEROTHER VEHICLES AGR. TRACTORS TOTAL OF COLUMN 3 TO 8 TOTAL TRAFFIC OF COMM. VEHICLES CYCLE ANIMAL DRAWNOTHERSTOTAL OF COLUMN 11 TO 131234567891011121314DAY 11100 AM6112488810219222200 AM4242748512603300 AM4853257714904400 AM381712951818005500 AM525870914406600 AM237284322123426TOTAL26450155401719416028AVERAGE4482667121571001PCU CONVERSION FACTOR0.501.50DAY 21100 AM44524481213302200 AM5252344212603300 AM405408216704400 AM12128195105500 AM24134246971411912316600 AM41364554149437TOTAL213431432847777672301538AVERAGE36724471311284036DAY 31100 AM2724108714802200 AM42317751315003300 AM3423683315804400 AM5291095316905500 AM421565512706600 AM34846875412210TOTAL2313917845331419730000AVERAGE3973076571620000AVERAGE 3 DAYS236441593796016894100615 Table 4.6 DESIGN OF RIGID PAVEMENTS TABLE Axle Load Spectrum Single AxleTandem AxleTridem AxleAxle Load Class kNFrequency ( of Single axles)Axle Load Class kNFrequency ( of Tandem axles)Axle Load Class kNFrequency ( of Tridem axles)1902.0139018.805450.001800.4037017.355150.001702.2135024.584850.0016016.8933013.834550.0015010.593104.9242520.7314023.662904.1939519.5113017.762700.1436521.2212011.932505.4933518.291106.172305.3030518.051000.402100.242750.73900.671904.822450.49807.311700.342150.98 Selection of modules of subgrade reaction – Effective CBR of compacted subgrade 8 percent, Modulus of subgrade reaction 50.3 Mpa/m, (from Table 2) Provide 150 mm thick granuler Sub Base Provide a DLC Sub Base of thickness 100 mm with a minimum 7 day compressive strength of 10 MPa Effective modulus of Sub Grade reaction of combined foundation of subgrade granular subbase and DLC subbase (from Table 4 by interpolation) 285 Mpa/m Provide a debonding layer of polythene sheet of 125 micron thickness between DLC and concrete slab Selection of Flexural Strength of Concrete 28 – day compressive strength of cement concrete 40 MPa 90 – day compressive strength of cement concrete 48 MPa 28 – day Flexural strength of cement concrete 4.5 MPa 90 – day Flexural strength of cement concrete 4.5 x 1.1 4.95 MP Selection of Design traffic for Fatigue Analysis – Design period 30 Years Annual rate of growth of commercial traffic (expressed in decimal) 0.075 Two way commercial traffic volume per day 3977 commercial vehicles / day of traffic in predominant direction 50 percent 1989 CVs in each direction. Total two-way commercial vehicles during design period C 365 x 3977 (1 0.075)30 – 1) 0.075 150095090 CVs Average number of axles (sterring/single/tandem/tridem) per commercial vehicle 2.35 Total two-way axle load repetitions during the design period 150095090X2.35 352723462AxleNumber of axles in predominant direction 352723462X0.5 176361731Design traffic after adjusting for lateral placement of axles (25 percent of predominant direction traffic for multi-lane highways) 176361731X0.2544090433Night time (12-hour) design axle repetitions (60 percent traffic during night time) 44090433X0.6026454260Day time (12-hour) design axle repetitions (1-0.60) 44090433X0.4017636173 Day time Six-Hour axle load repetitions 17636173X0.508818087 Hence design number of axle load repetitions for bottom-up cracking analysis 8818087 Night time Six-Hour axle load repetitions 26454260X0.513227130 of commercial vehicles having the spacing between the front (sterring) axle and the first axle of the rear axle unit 55 percent Table 4.7 category wise axel repetitions for bottom-up top-down cracking Axle CategoryProportion of the Axle categoryCategory-wise axle repetitions for Bottom-up cracking analysisCategory-Wise axle repetitions for top-down cracking analysis Front (steering) single0.4539681393273715Rear Single0.1513227131091238Tandem0.2522045221818731Tridem0.1513227131091238 Hence, the Six-Hour night-time design axle load repetitions for Top-Down cracking analysis (Wheel base 4.5 m) 13227130X0.557274922The axle load category-wise design axle load repetions for bottom-up and top-down fatigue cracking analysis are given in following table – Cumulative Fatigue Damage (CFD) analysis for Bottom-up cracking (BUC) and Top-down Cracking (TDC) and selection of Slab Thickness- Effective modulus of subgrade reaction of foundation, k 39, 63 and 92 for CBR 3, 10 and 30 respectively. Elastic Modulus of concrete, E 30000 MPa day-time diff / 2 5 11.25 degree C. Pavement Option taken – Concrete pavement with tied concrete shoulder with dowel bars across transverse joints Trial Thickness of slab, h 0.24, 0.26, 0.28, and 0.30 meter (Variable for each sub base) K 92 MPa/m at CBR 30h (meter)0.240.260.280.30I (meter)0.787350.836060.883850.93079 Table 4.11 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Bottom-up Cracking (For IRC 582011) Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-Time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature DifferentialRear Single AxlesRear Tandem AxlesExpected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)Expected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)123(2/4.51.1) (1.1 Multiplier for 90 d)45(1/4)123(2/4.51.1)45(1/4)265872.1220.429INFINITE0.0004144502.1580.436INFINITE0.00052912.0200.408INFINITE0.0003824852.0630.417INFINITE0.000292321.9170.387INFINITE0.0005418721.9800.400INFINITE0.0002234061.8150.367INFINITE0.0003048851.8910.382INFINITE0.0001400751.7120.346INFINITE0.0001084621.8010.364INFINITE0.0003129541.6100.325INFINITE0.000923691.7120.346INFINITE0.0002349141.5070.304INFINITE0.00030861.6230.328INFINITE0.0001578001.4040.284INFINITE0.0001210281.5340.31INFINITE0.000816111.3020.263INFINITE0.0001168401.4450.292INFINITE0.00052911.1990.242INFINITE0.00052911.3560.274INFINITE0.00088621.0970.222INFINITE0.00010625 81.2670.256INFINITE0.000966900.9940.201INFINITE0.00074951.1780.238INFINITE0.00013227130.00022045210.000 Table 4.12 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Bottom-up Cracking (For IRC 582002) Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-Time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature Differential at 24mm thickness k39Rear Single AxlesRear Tandem AxlesExpected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)Expected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)1234512345(2/4.51.1) (1.1 Multiplier for 90 d)(1/4)(2/4.51.1)(1/4)265873.70.74747755.7384144503.10.6261340030.92952913.40.68725312.09038248530.6062340016.346292323.20.64677003.7965418722.80.566712007.6112234062.90.586941002.3743048852.60.5252290013.3141400752.50.5054850000.2891084622.40.48534000000.0323129542.20.444INFINITE0.000923692.10.424INFINITE02349141.80.364INFINITE0.00030861.90.384INFINITE01578001.60.323INFINITE0.0001210281.60.323INFINITE0816111.20.242INFINITE0.0001168401.30.263INFINITE0121187064.28208547768.230 Table 4.13 Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-Time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature Differential at 30mm thickness and k39 Bottom-up Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Day-Time (6 hour) traffic and Positive Temperature Differential at 30mm thickness and k39Rear Single AxlesRear Tandem AxlesExpected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)Expected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)1234512345(2/4.51.1) (1.1 Multiplier for 90 d)(1/4)(2/4.51.1)(1/4)265872.80.566712000.3734144502.40.4851287003.22052912.50.5054850000.0113824852.20.444INFINITE0.000292322.30.46552000000.00654187220.404INFINITE0.00022340620.404INFINITE0.0003048851.80.364INFINITE0.0001400751.80.364INFINITE0.0001084621.60.323INFINITE0.0003129541.60.323INFINITE0.000923691.50.303INFINITE02349141.30.263INFINITE0.00030861.30.263INFINITE01578001.10.222INFINITE0.0001210281.10.222INFINITE0816110.80.162INFINITE0.00011684010.202INFINITE012118700.3899420854773.22028 Table 4.14 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Top-Down Cracking (IRC582011) m mD m m m m Table 4.15 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis for Top-Down Cracking (IRC582002) Top – Down Cracking Fatigue Analysis for Night-Time (6 hour) traffic and Negative Temperature DifferentialRear Single AxlesRear Tandem Axles(Stress computed for 50 of axle load)Expected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)Expected Rep (ni)Flex Stress MPaStress Ratio (SR)Allowable Rep. (Ni)Fatigue Damage (ni/Ni)1234512345(2/4.51.1) (1/4)(2/4.51.1)(1/4)658023.70.747477137.9503419213.10.6261340025.516130953.40.68725315.17431555030.6062340013.485723493.20.64677009.3964470442.80.566712006.2795529302.90.586941005.8762515302.60.5252290010.9843466862.50.5054850000.715894822.40.48534000000.0267745612.20.444INFINITE0.000762052.10.424INFINITE0.0005814121.80.364INFINITE0.00025461.90.384INFINITE0.0003905541.60.323INFINITE0.000998481.60.323INFINITE0.0002019881.20.242INFINITE0.000963931.30.263INFINITE0.0002999377159.110172051956.290 Table 4.16 Cumulative Fatigue Damage Values for Four Trial Thicknesses (for Bottom-up Cracking) Slab Thickness (m)CFD (IRC 582011)CFD (IRC 582002)CBR / K value CBR / K value 3 / 3910 / 6330 / 923 / 3910 / 6330 / 92 0.2462.03265.62169.258132.51138.64149.160.265.92111.4876.73713.1726.9716.670.280.2910.3333.1037.7249.81113.050.300.0000.0000.0003.617.5312.470.330.0000.0000.0000.0000.0000.000 Computation of bottom-up and top down cumulative fatigue damage is illustrated in Tabel VII.2 and VII.3. It can be seen from the calculations given in the tables that for the slab thickness of 0.30 m, the total fatigue damage for bottom-up cracking case is 0.000 0.000 0.000, Total fatigue damage for top-down cracking case 0.000 0.333 0.333. We can also calculate and find the cumulative fatigue damage for various CBR or K value for top-down cracking. Graph 4.1 3 (IRC 582011 vs IRC 582002) Graph 4.2 CBR 10(IRC582011 VS IRC 58 2002) Graph 4.3 CBR 30 (IRC 582011 vs IRC 582002) CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND FEAUTURE SCOPE OF STUDY The analysis done with the help of IRC 58- 2011 is verified with the previous guidelines (IRC 58-2002 2) according to which, if the cumulative fatigue damage caused by the single and tandem axle loads is less than one and if the sum of temperature and flexural stresses due to the higher wheel load is less than the modulus of rupture, then the thickness is said to be safe. The results of the analysis are totally different from the analysis done using IRC 58-2011 and these are represented in graphical form. Figure for IRC 58-2002 which shows the safe thickness, Safe slab thickness for IRC 582002 is greater than IRC 582011. It is observed from three graphs generated with IRC 58-2011 vs IRC 58-2002 that the required safe thickness is 30mm for new code while it was 33 mm for old 2002 code. With increasing CBR percentage CFD increases and, it can be seen from the figure that stronger subgrade leads to lesser pavement thickness. With an increase in the slab thickness, stresses tended to decrease, but according to IRC 58-2011. Validation of the results by previous IRC guidelines shows completely different results with increases in subgrade strength, design thickness decreases. References 1 IRC SP 20-2002, Rural Road Manual. 2 IRC SP 42-1994, Guidelines of Road Drainage. 3 IRC SP 62-2014, Guidelines for Design and Construction of Cement Concrete Pavement for Low Volume Roads (First Revision). 4 Dr. R. Kumar, Scientist, Rigid Pavements Division, CRRI, Design and Construction of Rigid Pavements/Cement Concrete Roads (ppt). 5 Pandey, B.B., Warping Stresses in Concrete Pavements- A Re-Examination, HRB No. 73, 2005, Indian Roads Congress, 49-58. 6 Westergaard, H. M. (1948), New Formulas for Stresses in Concrete Pavements of Airfield, ASCE Transactions, vol. 113, 425- 444. 7 Srinivas, T., Suresh, K. and Pandey, B.B., Wheel Load and Temperature Stresses in Concrete Pavement, Highway Research Bulletin No. 77, 2007, 11-24. 8 Bradbury, R. D. (1938), Reinforced Concrete Pavements, Wire Reinforcement Inst., Washington, D.C. 9 B. Kumar, Scientist, Rigid Pavements Division, CRRI, Design Construction Quality Control Aspects in Concrete Road (ppt). 10 IRC 15-2011, Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Construction of Concrete Roads (Fourth Revision). 11 IRC 58-2011, Guidelines for Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavement for Highways (Third Revision). 12 Indian Road Congress, IRC 58-2002, Guidelines for the Design of Plain Jointed Rigid Pavement for Highways. 13 IRC 57-2006, Recommended Practice for Sealing of Joints in Concrete Pavements (First Revision). 14 Detailed Project Report, Upgradation of Road from Nathusari Kalan to Rupana Bishnoian in Sirsa, Haryana PWD (BR), 2014. Type text Page PAGE MERGEFORMAT 15 JAWAHARLAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BORAWAN Page PAGE MERGEFORMAT 62 -Jo xi,VyA.zzw5i CQ2LIimM
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