ABS211 -0624/2017 47 EMBRACING OUR LIFESTYLE

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CHAPTER THREE:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.

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3.1 INTRODUCTION.
This research aims at studying the inter relationship between transit terminus and informal (hawking) businesses and the built environment in relat ion to
commuter experience. Both qualitative and quantitative methods have been employed in this study to answer the research quest ions set. Three case studies
will be carried out observing various spatial aspects in relation to user experience after which a comparative analysis condu cted in order to draw appropriate
conclusions and recommendations.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN.
Qualitative re search.
Based on my objectives as stated above, the use of quantitative design approach is more suited for this study. The design wil l not provide conclusive answers
to the research question, but explore in depth the various aspects of the study. This will greatly give room for new discoveries due to the methods I will use in
data collection. The design approach is flexible and can address these research questions: What are the spatial concepts of i ntegrated design in a transit
terminus? What spatial aspect s in selected transit terminus are there in relation to informal businesses and user experience? And how can spatial elements be
redefined to enhance integrated design in a transit terminus? This will helps in determining, the sampling methodology and da ta collection methods.
Case study design.
The use of relevant case studies to assist in deriving solutions to problems and learn from the strategies used in the Case S tudies. I am projecting that I will
realize a better conclusion at the end of this researc h study as a result of the methods used to collect and analyse data. There is use of questionnaires with open
ended questions; this will give me an opportunity to gain new knowledge on the research topic hence improving on my research study findings. This study is
aimed at providing an opportunity of defining new terms and clarifying existing concepts based on my study.
It also helps in establishing research priorities and areas where resources should be allocated. This study design will utili ze small sampl e sizes. The findings
from this study are generalizable to a large population. Suited to my research problem that focuses on the population living in urban centres and use public
transport. This is aimed at coming up with solutions that are universally app licable and sustainable.

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3.3 SOURCE OF DATA.
a) Primary sources.
The use or primary sources of data collection to obtain raw data in the field of study in this research study. The study of p resent transit terminus within
Nairobi CBD, the study aims to use interviews, observation, administering questionnaires and checklists in site data collection.

b) Secondary sources.
This study aims to use of available secondary sources of data in the formulation of analysis to be made through out this rese arch by us e of literature review.
These data is sourced from books, internet journals and papers.

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3.4: RESEARCH METHODS TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS.
Done as per research objectives, to establish ways of redefining circulation for enhanced user experience in a transit te rminus as described on the table below.
OBJECTIVES METHODS TECHNIQUES TOOLS
– To identify circulation concepts
that can be used to enhance user
experience in a transit terminus.
Archival data Note taking ? Books
? Internet
? Journals
– To analyse circulation spaces in
selected transit terminus in relation
to user experience.

Observation

Interview

Photography
Note taking

Sketching

Measuring

Examination

? Camera
? Observational
checklist
? Pencil and Sketch
pad
? Measuring tape

? Questionnaire
? Photo album
– To establish how circulation can be
redefined to enhance user
experience.

Observation

Interview

Archival data
Photography
Note taking

Examination

Library
? Camera
? Observational
checklist
? Questionnaire
? Photo album
? Journals and online
Articles

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3.4.1: OBSERVATION.
This involves observing circulation areas in accordance to user experience in the built environment and recording data obtain ed from primary sources. This
observations will be in relation to circulation attributes in relation to user experience. The method makes use of the researchers own observation without
involving the respondents and used in recording existing circulation concepts that enhances user experience.
The tools that will be used to achieve this are:

a) Techniques.
The techniques to be used in this study are:
i. Photography.
Photographs captured by a camera will be used to record the spatial elements of the built environment that may have been omit ted during observation.
Photographs capture accurate information as is observ ed and avoids having to return to the site of the case study. Great details can be recorded depending on
the extent of the research and the areas of interest.
ii. Note taking.
This involves noting down information obtained from research and other important mat erial related to the study such as from the identified international case
studies.
iii. Sketching.
This involves using a pencil and a media for drawing such as paper. This will be employed where photographs are prohibited or where further illustration is
needed .
iv. Measuring.
Measure of sizes and spaces used within the circulation spaces.

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b) Tools
This tools to be used are:
i. Camera.
Used in taking photographs during field study.
ii. Pre -coded checklist.
This checklist contains various important parameters that are to be analysed in the built environment. The filled checklist will be useful for comparative
analysis.
iii. Pencil and sketch pad.
Key tools in making sketches on site on elements that require further details.
iv. Measuring tape.
Used in measuring structural and envir onmental elements.

3.4.2: INTERVIEW.
Focused interviews were conducted within the terminus population taking into account the drivers and conductors, the commuter s, business owners at the
periphery of the terminus and hawkers. I also interviewed two peopl e in the category of the general public. The data collected was used for analysis to find
out in detail on the effect of treatment of circulation spaces in relation to user experience.

During the study I asked the following question to 10 respondents:
? Ho w do you find the experience of walking to the terminus when the hawker are operational differentiated from when they are not present?
? What measures can be put in place to accommodate hawking business within the terminus?

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? Do you feel safe within in the terminus?
? If No, what are the factors that contribute to insecurity within the terminus?
? What do you think needs to be improved in spaces within the terminus?
? How has navigation for the physically challenged been addressed in the terminus and is it functional?
? What are the future plans of accommodation in the terminus?
? What other improvements or changes would you want to be made?

a) Techniques.
The technique to be used during interview is the use:
i. Examination.
Structured examination of respondents in the built environment.
ii. Note taking.
Recording information gathered during interviews.
b) Tools.
The tools to be used are:
i. Questionnaires.
This will be administered to the sample population for the study which includes obese persons, staff of bariatric wellnes s facilities and experts in the
fields of the built environment and obesity.
ii. Observation album.
iii. Camera
iv. Note pad and pen.

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3.4.3: ARCHIVAL DATA.
This method comprises of researchers previous studies on spatial elements. It reveals methodology and procedures used before for the same type of study.
The aim will be to improve upon the methodology and procedures used. The required information will be obtained from a compreh ensive literature review
extracted from research papers, journals, books and onl ine articles.
Techniques.
i. Note taking.
ii. Sketching.

Tools.
i. Note pad and pen.
ii. Pencil.

3.5: TAGET POPULATION.
The target population in question is the 95% of the urban population living in Nairobi who use public transport. This study w ill focus on the commuters of all
age groups, the drivers, conductors and business persons operating within the transit terminus.
The focus of this study will be in:
– Ngara terminal.
– Nairobi railway terminus.
– Bus station terminus.

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3.6: SAMPLING.
Random selection of variables to be used for this study.
a) Sample size.
This study will select 100 commuters at random for data collection. The selected few will be assumed to represent the 95% usi ng public transport system. 10
business persons will be selected at random in al l three terminus to represent all business personnel’s in transit terminus. The data collected will be used as a
general assumption that applies in all terminus.

3.6.1: SAMPLE TECHNIQUE.
1. Simple random sampling.
Randomly selecting a sample size for the study that gives an equal chance for every pedestrian to be selected for the sample.
2. Systematic sampling.
Sampling was done among the general public to ensure even distribution on all levels of public transport. This will give a go od and true picture of th e study.
3. Sequential sampling.
This sampling technique assisted in determining level for data collection so that a conclusions can be made in good time.

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3.7: DATA ANALYSIS.
The collected data from the field will be synthesized into a more comprehensi ble form which will then be coded using a measurable system. Other
analytical methods are drawing of statistical inferences and tabulation which will make computation easy.
3.7.1 Data valuation
This will be carried out in the field to cross -check and veri fy the data to ensures relevance, accuracy and totality of data collection. Gaps that may be
identified will be compensated for by deducing from memory or comparing other research methods.
3.7.2 Data editing
This is done to ensure consistency of gathered facts, the extensiveness of those facts and that they are consistently recorded which will facilitate coding
and tabulation.
3.7.3 Data coding.
The information that is edited will be grouped and each group assigned a particular number and alphabetical code to ease the process of analysis.
Afterwards, a coding key that will describe the coding scheme will be prepared.

3.10 DATA PRESENTATION.
The data collected was presented using the methods listed below:
i. Microsoft excel spreadsheets.
ii. Graphs, tables and cha rts.
iii. Drawings.
iv. Photographs.