background on bioaerosols bacteria fungi viruses and pollens are only some of the airborne biological contaminants commonly known as bioaerosols hoseini m

background on bioaerosols bacteria fungi viruses and pollens are only some of the airborne biological contaminants commonly known as bioaerosols hoseini m. et al 2013 these microorganisms commonly found in the air can be in different forms. they can be in the form of single cells aggregates of cells fragments and spores hemavathi c. at al 2014 it is known that growth of non-pathogenic microorganisms such as airborne fungi are related to different respiratory diseases like asthma allergy aschronic bronchitis and hypersensitive pneumonitis release of mycotoxin and volatile organic compounds and infections wang y.f et al 2009; kawasaki t. et al 2010; hoseini m. et al 2013; luksamijarulkul p. and pipitsangjan s. 2015; juahir h. et al 2016 these respiratory diseases especially asthma are usually caused by disrupting of microbial community inside the body and inflicting damage to the epithelium barriers by specific microbial species such as alternaria spp. penicillium spp. aspergillus spp. and cladosporium spp. park j.b. et al 2016; yao m. et al 2017 exposure to the mycotoxins not only bring respiratory diseases but also heighten the occurrence of cancer in ones body yao m. et al 2017 according to the study of hoseini m. et al the amount or distribution of airborne biological contaminants especially fungi has a great influence to the quality of indoor air in most places. the effect these contaminants bring is usually inversely proportional to the size of the enclosed space. indoor fungi cause more harm when the space gets smaller letting the particles swarm around in a very limited area al-easawi n.a. and al-bahrani r.m. 2016 studies on airborne fungi in common areas different studies have been assessing the contaminants in the indoor and outdoor air of places. these contaminants being assessed are carbon monoxide carbon dioxide volatile organic compounds particulate matter and bioaerosols hoseini m. et al 2013 some studies showed the presence and distribution of bioaerosols such as airborne fungi in housing office buildings and public transport systems such as airplanes subway trains ambulances and automobiles kawasaki t. et al 2010; luksamijarulkul p. and pipitsangjan s. 2015; park j.b. et al 2016 some studies analyzed the relationship between fungal growth and common health symptoms in the society kawasaki t. et al 2010 it is reported that people with common health-related symptoms such as coughing and sneezing produce bioaerosols in enclosed spaces by releasing oral fluids into the air luksamijarulkul p. and pipitsangjan s. 2015 this makes humans plausible and significant sources of bioaerosols yao m. et al 2017 some studies monitor the airborne microorganisms by focusing on recovery of fungal spores and bacterial cells through the use of spore count and culture techniques hemavathi c. at al 2014 it was discovered that abundance and distribution of airborne fungi varies depending on environmental conditions such as temperature humidity wind speed precipitation vegetation and air pollution hemavathi c. at al 2014 background on public transportation public transportation is very common in urban cities wang y.f. et al 2009 this is the reason why commuters spend almost all of their time in the enclosed spaces of public vehicles having potential risks to their health wang y.f. et al 2009; hoseini m. et al 2013; park j.b. et al 2016 this potential harm may be brought by the dispersion of airborne biological agents in the area park j.b. et al 2016 it is known that the air circulation inside a public vehicle is still not clean and safe enough even if there is an air conditioner wang y.f. et al 2009 given the situation previous studies still suggest that filters in air conditioners must be cleaned or changed constantly to prevent accumulation and growth of contaminants al-easawi n.a. and al-bahrani r.m. 2016 this means that inadequate cleaning of these air conditioners in public vehicles can easily heighten the risks to the health of the passengers luksamijarulkul p. and pipitsangjan s. 2015 airborne fungi are always associated to different health problems like asthma and allergy wang y.f. et al 2009 identifying the fungi-favoring conditions helps in reducing the growth of fungi and the risks they bring kawasaki t. et al 2010; yao m. et al 2017 characterization of airborne fungi is also important in order to set a decontamination response against their growth in public areas kawasaki t. et al 2010; yao m. et al 2017 also the effect of human activities on the abundance of bioaerosols can be determined through these techniques yao m. et al 2017 the procedures and materials that will be used in this study are mainly based on a previous study by kawasaki t. et al. 2010 and park j.b. et al 2016 the researcher will not collect air samples using any air sampler but will instead expose petri plates in the sampling site. in summary the researcher will collect air samples from the uv express vehicles and incubate them in separate culture media. after incubation the researcher will perform different tests and analysis on the samples to determine the specific microorganisms or fungi that are present in the sites. to finish the experimentation the researcher will perform statistical tests to analyze the correlation and significance of some factors to the presence and abundance of the fungal isolates. selection of survey sites airborne fungi will be taken at the randomly selected uv express service vehicles touring from project 6 of quezon city to buendia of manila. samples will be perceived on different time periods being peak and off-peak hours. collection of airborne fungi airborne fungi will be collected by leaving some czapek dox agar plates exposed for about 30 minutes hemavathi c. et al 2014 for each testing date collection will be done five separate times morning peak hour 6:00 7:00 a.m. morning off-peak hour 9:00 10:00 a.m. afternoon off-peak hour 1:00 2:00 p.m. afternoon peak hour 6:00 7:00 p.m. and late evening hour 10:00 11:00 p.m for each testing period two sets of sampling will be done one at the front seat and one at the back. other conditions at the sampling sites such as temperature relative humidity and number of passengers during the collection of fungi will also be recorded using a digital thermometer and humidity sensor wang y.f. et al. 2009; kawasaki t. et al 2010 airborne fungi in outdoor air at the start of the route will also be collected on the same day and time period. these will serve as controls luksamijarulkul p. and pipitsangjan s. 2015 plates will be transferred to a 4% sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and incubated at 37 degrees celsius for five days with daily observation acharya t. 2014; luksamijarulkul p. and pipitsangjan s. 2015; park j.b. et al 2016 chloramphenicol will be added to avoid or stop any bacterial growth hoseini m. et al 2013 while sabouraud dextrose agar will be used since it usually yields great amount of fungal growth acharya t. 2014; juahir h. et al 2016 fungi will be counted and calculated as colony forming units per cubic meter of air and expressed as cfu/m3 wang y.f. et al 2009; kawasaki t. et al 2010 identification of airborne fungi the cultured airborne fungi will be identified using the lactophenol cotton blue staining method of leck a. 1999 and classidied by observing their morphology. this method has three main components phenol which is there to kill any live microorganisms lactic acid which saves the structure of fungi and cotton blue which stains the chitin component in the fungal cell walls leck a. 1999 determination of fungal distribution the concentration difference of airborne fungi among the different sampling periods will be calculated using kruskal-wallis h test. moreover to evaluate the relationship between the other factors such as the temperature relative humidity and density of passengers and the abundance of airborne fungi spearmans correlation coefficient test will be done hoseini m. et al 2013