Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments

Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments. The relationship between humans and bacteria is complex.
Procaryotic structural components consist of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, polysaccharides, phospholipids, or some combination thereof. The macromolecules are made up of primary subunits such as nucleotides, amino acids and sugars (Table 1). It is the sequence in which the subunits are put together in the macromolecule, called the primary structure, that determines many of the properties that the macromolecule will have. Thus, the genetic code is determined by specific nuleotide base sequences in chromosomal DNA; the amino acid sequence in a protein determines the properties and function of the protein; and sequence of sugars in bacterial lipopolysaccharides determines unique cell wall properties for pathogens. The primary structure of a macromolecule will drive its function, and differences within the primary structure of biological macromolecules accounts for the immense diversity of lifeā€¦..
Some bacteria produce slime materials to adhere and float themselves as colonial masses in their environments. Other bacteria produce slime materials to attach themselves to a surface or substrate. Bacteria may attach to surface, produce slime, divide and produce microcolonies within the slime layer, and construct a biofilm, which becomes an enriched and protected environment for themselves and other bacteria.