CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 EXPLENATION:
The purpose of this project is to monitor and control various electrical parameter of the substation. The parameter will be monitor like voltage, current, power, frequency.

These projects consists of SCADA based control system, the SCADA system monitored raw data and convert into human readable format and display.

PLC continuously check the data being read and take necessary action, if the read values exceed the present limit.

The PLC monitor and control, according to the logic built in the memory.

This whole arrangement will help operator to read energy consumption real time data from the control room.

To communicate the energy meter of different units will be done by using mod-bus RS-485 system.

This will help industry to keep old records in graphical method, it will be easy to monitor the window and reduce the human effort.

LITERATURE:
RESEARCH PAPER-1:
ABSTRACT: The preclusion of faults and defects in substation main equipment is considered a major differentiate factor in the class of power delivers by utilities. The reduction of faults and effects that cause interruption in the supply of electrical energy significantly improves services show rate .The requirement of preservation circuit breakers DC battery systems and disconnect switches. Using defense, control, monitoring IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices) as the source of information to understand and the health and show of substation equipment makes the execution of a monitoring system economical and technically smart.
RESEARCH PAPER-2:
ABSTRACT: This includes the construction of a master unit for data acquisition and software to you the data of the multi-function meter from AC network analyzer. The review indicates current application of SCADA to energy management systems, security and other aspects including the SCADA model as teaching aid engineering teams by monitoring substation apparatus, such as power transformers.

1.3 AIM:
Main aim of this project is to reduce the human effort needed to go around the industry & take the reading of different units & to bring automation in energy meter reading.
This whole arrangement will bring automation & will help operator to read energy consumption real time data from the control room.

To communicate the energy meters of different units will be done by using mod-bus RS-485 system. According to power consumption of unit we can get the energy charge for that unit.

This will help industry to keep old records in graphical method & it will be easy to monitor the history, this will help the industry to make economical operation of that particular unit.

ADVANTAGES:
Suitable for any kind of substation and private power base for industries.

Safety can be achieved.

IOT data transmission is very fast.

No limitation of range.

High accuracy and fair efficiency.

Whole system can be shut down for quick repairs and re-installation.

Controlling and monitoring of substation is easy.

Electrical accident reduced.

DISADVANTAGES:
Perhaps the values of monitored parameters are wrong.

Sometimes problem creates in meter.

Costly and difficult.

CHAPTER-2
CANVAS ACTIVITY
2.1 BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS:

Fig 2.1 –BMC
Key partners: In this students can do the parternership with different companies according to their product. By doing this students got the idea about what is market scenario, optimization in product & cost can be achieved, from where they got raw material of their product.

Industries
Govt. sector
Buildings
Key Activities: In this students got aware about how will they represent their product to customers. They can use the media, radio, newspapers etc. for marketing of the product.

Monitoring
Theft protection
Advertise
Web site
Value proposition: In this one can directly come in contact with customer requirement. In this they will aware the customer about their product. How it is usable & beneficial over the conventional product and which kind of services they will provide to customers.

Monitoring electrical parameter
Theft protection
Display the data on energy meter
Display the data on SCADA
Key Resources: In this section student got idea about, from which kind of industries, they will purchase raw material for their product.

PLC
SCADA
Energy meter
Customer Relationship: In this section students got to know about how they will manage the relationship with customer by giving them lucrative services.

Govt. Safety
Service
Customer segment: Bifurcate the customer according to their product. To which kind of customer they can sell their product.

In Industry
Govt. sector
Channel: In this students got to know about how they will approach customers. Which media they should select for the marketing of their product.

Govt. sector
Cost structure: They can attract customers towards their product by giving them lucrative offers in cost. In which department, they should have to invest most.

GST
SMPS
Wiring
PLC
Energy meter
Revenue stream: In this section students got know about, from where revenue will generate from their product. Price can be negotiable according to customer requirement. How it is beneficial in cost as compare to same product available in market.

Safety
Theft protectionist
CHAPTER-3
HARDWARE DISCRIPTION
3.1 SUBSTATION
Substation is a part of an electrical production, spread and sharing system. Substation transform voltage form high to low and vice versa, or platform any of some other important function.

The substation are where the voltage are increased to high values by using step up transformers, and after the transmission, they are again stepped down for distribution .

Power may run through a number of substations stuck between generating plant and consumer, and its voltage may modify in several stages.
A Substation connects two or more transmission lines. Transmission substation can range from simplex to complex. A small “switching station” may be little more than a bus plus some more circuit breakers.

The biggest transmission substation can cover a big area with many voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a big amount of protection and controlling equipment.(relays and SCADA systems, voltage and current transformers.)
Power substation automation is the act of repeatedly controlling the power system through SCADA based monitor system. Substation automation refers to using the date from smart electronics devices (like PLC, RTU…) busy organize and automation capability within the substation, and control instructions from remote users to control power system substation.

Digital substations can increases controllability, facilitate the integration of intermittent renewable and improves safety by replacing cabling with fiber optic
Medium voltage substation step down power from the transmission grid to the voltage levels essential by residential, commercial and industries clients.

Based on the application of substation, they are classified into different types: Generation substation, indoor substation, outdoor substation, pole mounted substation, switching substation, transmission substation, converter substation and distribution substation.

Fig 3.1-substation
3.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig 3.2 –block diagram
3.3 BLOCK DISCRIPTION:
3.3.1 PLC (PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER):
PLC is an industrial computer used to monitor inputs and to control its outputs. Simply programmed and have an easily implicit programming language. PLC works by incessantly scanning a program. PLC will make that data readable by doing serial communication with computer setup. For extra application if we want to control off or switch on any element remotely we are able to make this happen using PLC.

We use DVP-14SS2 type of PLC. In this 14 indicates 14 pin in PLC. In input pin is x0 to x7 and output pin is y0 to y5.

The second generation DVPSS2 series slim type PLC keeps the basic sequential control functions from the DVPSS series PLC but with faster execution speed and enhanced real time monitoring capability.

MPU points : 14 (8DI +6DO)
Max. I/O points : 494 (14+480)
Program capacity : 8K steps
Com port build in RS232 and RS485 port , well-matched with modbus ASCII/RTU set of rules . Can be master or slave .Built in high rate counters
In order to correctly understand the operation of a PLC, it is essential to expend considerable time programming, testing, and debugging PLC program. PLC systems are essentially expensive, and down-time is often especially costly. In adding together, if a PLC is programmed imperfectly it can result in lost productivity and unsafe conditions. PLC simulation software such as PLC Logix can save time in the design of automatic control application and can also raise the level of safety associated with tools since various “what if” scenario can be try and experienced before the system is activate.

A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an developed digital computer which has been dander modified for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that require high dependability control and ease of programming and process fault analysis.

Fig-3.3 PLC
3.3.2 CONTACTOR:
A contactor has three components. The contacts are the current transportation part of the contactor.
This include power associates, support contacts, and contact spring. The electromagnet provides the dominant force to close the contacts.
A contactor is an electrically prohibited manage used for switching a power circuit, similar to convey except with top current ratings.

A contactor is prohibited by a circuit which has a much minor power level than the switched circuit.
Contactor is to be used for the purpose of elegant the load
We use 9 amp 230 coil this type of contactor.

Fig -3.4 contactor
3.3.3 USB TO SERIAL CONVERTER:
USB to serial converter is used in this project for the principle for provide connection between the PLC and energy meter via RS-485.
But in market there are no converter is accessible for RS-485 so we used RS-232 and we convert it into RS-485.

Data transport speed of this cable converter about 1Mbps.

fig- 3.5 USB TO serial converter
3.3.4 SMPS: SWITCHED MODE POWER SUPPLY
The majority of electronic DC load are supplied from standard power source.

A switched-mode power supply is electronic power supplies that incorporate a switch check to convert electrical power competently.

SMPS are widely used because of the advantages they offer in terms of size, cost, weight, efficiency and overall performance.

DC to DC switching converter for conversion from unregulated DC output voltage.

It is possible to insert the high frequency to isolate the output and to scale the output voltage magnitude.

The versatility of SMPS solves the problem of converting a standard source voltage into a usable output voltage.

We use 24 volt 2.5 amp this type SMPS.

Fig -3.6 SMPS
3.3.5 MCB (MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKERS):
MCB is use for the principle of connect or disconnect load from supply.
Miniature circuit breakers are used in allocation networks in home and in manufacturing industrial applications.
A breaker is a piece of equipment designed to divide a circuit during an in excess of current event without the use of a fusible element.

A breaker is a resettable defending device that protect beside two types of over current situation; burden and Short Circuit.
MCB ratings relate to stable service under specific fixing condition, although cables can carry superior currents for short period not including cause permanent damage.

6 amp MCB is used in our project.

fig- 3.7 MCB
3.3.6 MFM (MULTI FUNCTION METER):
Multifunction meter F3MFM1 to 4 for concurrent amount of a variety of electrical parameter of 4 wire or 3 phase 3 wire electrical power systems.
The meters are broadly used in application areas where reliable and exact monitoring of power line parameter is necessary.

Fig 3.8-MFM
3.3.7 CT (CURRENT TRANSFORMER):
Current transformer steps down the magnitude of current. We are using CT to measure the value of AC current.

Cable passes through the CT and it will give the output as a step down current corresponding to the CT ratio. CT output is given to the energy meter.30/5 amp ct is use in our project.

Fig 3.9- CT
3.3.8 RELAY:
Relay is use for protection purpose in the circuitary.4 channel relay used in our project.

Relay is used in this project for the purpose of to give the tripping signal to the contactor when the high current passes through the load terminal.

Fig 3.10 –relay
3.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig 3.11-circuit diagram
3.5 CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION:
First of all we give to AC supply. In AC supply has 2 wire. Phase and neutral. Phase(p) is connected to MCB via current transformer and neutral is directly connected to MCB.

MCB (miniature circuit breaker) is use for the over current protection in our project. We use 6 AMP current MCB. If current is more than 6 AMP MCB will tripped and disconnected to the load.

One phase (P1) and neutral (N1) is directly connected to energy meter-1 and second phase (P1) is connected to port-1 of SMPS and neutral is connected to port-N of SMPS.

Output of current transformer is connected to S1 & S2 port of energy meter because measure the current, total voltage.

Then load is directly connected to T2 port of the contactor and one wire is connected via current transformer to T1 port of the contactor. 9 AMP, 230 coil this type of contactor is use for the controlling and switching of circuit.

Then controlling of contactor by the 4- channel relay card. A1 port of contactor is connected to O1 port of relay. And L1 port of contactor (P1) is connected to P1 port of relay.

Relay is use for the controlling of contactor. SMPS is use convert AC to DC and we use 24 volt, 2.5 AMP. It uses the give power supply to all mother board components. A2 port of contactor is connected to L2 port of this contactor.

L1 port of contactor (P1) is connected to L port of SMPS. A2 port of contactor (N1) is connected to N port of SMPS. It connected because it to give power supply.

(1+) port of relay is connected to (-24)volt of SMPS and (1-) of relay is connected to output of PLC(Y5). Y5 is the output port of PLC and this output is connected to contactor.

(+24) volt of SMPS is connected to +24 of PLC. It give to power supply of PLC. Com port of SMPS is connected to 0 volt of PLC. Then +24 of SMPS is connected to UP pin of PLC and -24 volt of SMPS is connected to ZP pin of PLC.

RS-485 port of PLC is connected to energy meter 1&2. In energy meter-1 P1 and N1 is connected to also in meter-1. Second current transformer’s output S1 ; S2 are connected to energy meter-2.

P1, N1 port of energy meter-2 is loop connected to this energy meter-2. Y5 output of PLC is our project output. Then the data will display in meter-1 ; meter-2.
This difference of data is prove the energy theft concept. Then USB to serial cable through PLC for serial communication with the SCADA.

Finally the reading of energy meter 1 ; 2 are data shown in SCADA. Also show the graph of this parameter in SCADA.
CHAPTER-4
SIMULATION AND RESULT
In our project two main software ‘s are working.

PLC programming for WPL SOFT
SCADA programming for VIJEO CITIES SOFTWARE
PLC PROGRAMMING FOR WPL SOFT:

Fig 4.1 –WPL SOFT
WPL SOFT 2.41 is available as a free download on our software library.WPL soft relates to development tools.

This free pc software was developed to work on windows xp, windows vista ,Windows 7,windows 8 or windows 10 and can function on 32 bit system.WPL SOFT .exe, WPL.exe ,WPL 209.exe ,WPL208.exe or WPL207.exe are the common file names to indicate this program’s insatallar.

“DVP” is the extension this free PC SOFTWARE can process .The most popular versions of the tool are 2.37 ,2.3 ,2.2.

This open program was initially intended by DELTA ELECTRONICS , INC. our build in antivirus check this download and rate it as 100% protected.

WPL SOFT is a software for PLC. while PLC is in process ,use WPL SOFT to observe the set value or for the time being saved value in timer (T),counter(C) and register (D) and force , on/off of output contacts .PLC is a control system using electronic operations.
In our project
Step 1: open WPL software

Fig 4.2 – open software
Step 2: Go to file- new then new file open, write the program name and save the file.

Fig 4.3 –program configuration
Step 3: make the ladder diagram based on application requirement. Our project ladder diagram is given below.

Fig 4.4 – our program
Step 4: go to simulator, download the program in the PLC then run the program
4.2 SCADA (SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION)
A SCADA is an computerization control arrangement that is used in industry. A SCADA system works by working with signal that communicate via channels to provide the user with remote controls of several tools any given system.

SCADA systems offer near real time monitoring and control with time delays range between fractions of seconds to signify it.

It can be used to develop quality and efficiency of any system
SCADA SOFTWARE (Vijeo Citect 2015):
Vijeo Citect TM is the working and monitoring part of Schneider electric’s plant struxuretm .with its dominant display capability and its operational facial appearance, it delivers actionable approaching faster, enabling operators to respond quickly to process turbulence , their by increasing their effiency.

With its easy to use arrangement tools and features, you can fast develop and implement solutions for any size application.

Vijeo citect offer total idleness for all the components of the system. The idleness function are fully included in the system, provided that exceptional performance and perceptive configuration.

Surveillance, remote monitoring and control function have become critical for many business. Companies require the ability to closely monitor critical processes, high value equipment and strategic production material. All this tasks can now be accomplished easily thanks to the ability to integrate pelco cameras into the SCADA systems so that live video can be viewed directly on SCADA screen.

In our SCADA programming
Step 1: open compiled file, open the dialog box.

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Fig 4.5- compiled file of SCADA
Step 2: go to file –new program-then new project dialog box popup. Put the project name and project description.

Fig 4.6-configuration of project
Step 3: open the graphical file and select the pages based on project requirement.

Fig 4.7-graphical file
Step 4: select the local variable then new variable dialog box open.

Fig 4.8-define tags
Step 5: add the detail of the require variable and select the format based on the selectable variable.

Fig 4.9- project design
Step 6: main screen of SCADA

Fig 4.10- main screen of SCADA

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
5.1 CONCLUSION:
This project of implementation of SCADA using PLC for the substation monitoring and controlling is designed such that the devices can be monitor and also control from anywhere. The automation implemented in power distribution system ensures to avoid the wastage of power and reduced time.

5.2 FUTURE SCOPE:
SCADA systems are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. Using IOT technology data will be monitor and also control it.
Data can also transfer on internet using IOT.

CHAPTER-6
6.1 REFERENCE
IJREAT international journal of research in engineering & advanced technology , volume 2, issue 3 june-july , 2014 “SCADA AUTOMATION IN ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS”
Geraldo Rocha , David Dolezilek, Fernando Ayello, and Carlos oliveira Schweitzer engineering laboratories, Inc. ” DISTRIBUTION SUBSTATION MONITORING SYSTEM”
Practical SCADA for industry by David Bailey , Edwin Wright
Industrial automation PLC , control panels, SCADA, engineering software, wireless by ABB company
Programmable logic controllers by William Bolton
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