CHAPTER 1 Introduction Learning through play describe how a child can learn to make sense of the world around them

CHAPTER 1

Introduction
Learning through play describe how a child can learn to make sense of the world around them. It can develop the social and cognitive skills and gain the self-confidence of a child.

Educational technology is a study for facilitating learning and improving performance by creating software, hardware, and processes intended to promote education.

In our generation today, learners appear smarter and they are addicted to the internet. It makes life more convenient for us. Without technology, schools have little chance of rising to 21st-century expectations. Educational gaming applications are becoming more common in education. The 21st-century education focused on rote memorization and acquired skills (reading, writing, calculation, history, science), much of the way we learn today is through the use of higher order skills, many experts believe.

Educational gaming application is the running of specialized applications known as electronic games or video games. It is a downloadable game or tool for computers and some handheld devices. Using gaming applications are one of the techniques and procedures that the teacher may use in teaching reading. Using gaming applications in education are it brings some fun in the classroom, students become much more excited to learn and feel comfortable. The unique feature of educational gaming applications which offers its own set of services makes the information easily available, it helps students to expand concepts, provide a platform for self-directed exploration, deliver just-in-time learning, use data to help players understand their progress, and what to do and where to go next in the game, create a compelling need to know, ask, examine, assimilate, master skills and content and gives students opportunity to enhance the interaction with their classmates and instructors by encouraging collaboration, prepares students for the future and sets them up for this increasing digital economy.

Background

The four macro skills is commonly referred to in English language. The four macro skills are reading, listening, writing and speaking.

People learn comprehension skills through education or instruction and some learn by direct experiences (Tompkins, G.E, 2011). In reading, you need to comprehend words, and understand everything in the text, and if you don’t remember a part, you need to start all over.

English is a particularly difficult language when it comes to reading. There are so many exceptions to the rules of reading, and the English language is linguistically and cognitively confusing. An English alphabet has only 26 letters, however, more than 70 letter-combinations symbolize a hundred or more English language sounds.

Reading comprehension is the level of understanding of a text or message. This understanding comes from the interaction between the words that are written, and how they trigger knowledge outside the text or message (Keith Rayner; Barbara Foorman; Charles Perfetti; David Pesetsky ; Mark Seidenberg, 2001).

Some common difficulties in reading are issues with decoding, poor comprehension and speed. Decoding, also known as sounding out words, decoding is when readers are able to put sounds to letters in order to sound out written language. It’s common for beginner readers to struggle when they meet new or unfamiliar terms. Poor comprehension, there’s a lot going on in reading, from letter and word recognition to understanding meaning at the phrase, sentence and paragraph level. When a beginner reader encounters vocabulary they do not know or do not recognize due to inaccurate decoding, they are likely to skip ahead, and speed, the more students read, the more they encounter unfamiliar terms.

Lexical and Sub-Lexical are the two cognitive routes or mental processes for accessing and retrieving words from memory. The Lexical route relies on retrieving the entire word in memory, and can account for the accurate spelling of all the words contained in one’s vocabulary. The Sub-Lexical is the process whereby the reader can “sound out” a written word. This is done by identifying the word’s constituent parts (letters, phonemes, graphemes) and, applying knowledge of how these parts are associated with each other (Coltheart, Max; Curtis, Brent; Atkins, Paul; Haller, Michael, 1993).

In our generation today, learners are more interested to learn new words and construct words through a gaming application. Game-based learning is a joyful process for learning. Educational gaming applications are very much part of practice English vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation use throughout the world at all different levels.

Gaming applications helps students practice and review on vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation use, students will understand what is expected of them and teachers will know what they need to teach during the class, and create a supportive learning environment with fun, enjoyment, and excitement.

The GRE was created by ETS in 1949 and aims to measure Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Analytical Writing skills. ETS is composed of a combination of Researchers and Statisticians, test developers, and educational policy specialists dedicated to social responsibility, equity, opportunity, and quality. It is also the graduate test with the most diverse student base, used by students applying to a great variety of schools and programs.ETS has adapted the GRE to fit the changing needs of learners, educational institutions, and education policy. Its goals are to raise awareness of educational issues, develop assessments that are valid and fair, and conduct research that drives innovation and informs education policy. The 2011 test revision and the continued use of the experimental or research section have contributed to the ability of ETS to continuously update its material to meet the changing needs of its stakeholders, including students taking the test.The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Reading Comprehension – GRE® Test Prep ; Practice is an educational gaming application that have major features, it have over 200 passages, quick and short tests, detailed test analysis, beautiful material design and numerous features to help you study efficiently. The carefully crafted questions have been designed by experts to help you painlessly build your verbal, math and quantitative skills crucial for the GRE® exam.

Significance of the study

The study was designed to determine the effect of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) On-Line Learning Site in Improving the Reading Comprehension of Grade 12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Track.

Students- To be aware at their early age of how and, what can gaming applications can do their educational purposes.

Teachers- To be aware on the different teaching styles particularly on how can gaming applications can boost their motivation in learning and, how it can increase learner’s capability in coping with the discussion.

Parents- To be aware with the effect of using gaming applications on the teaching learning process in studying English.

Educational technologist/Researcher- To be aware and gain information in this study on the use of gaming application in education for them to further develop and improve more gaming applications.

School Administrator- To gain more knowledge and to inform them about this study.

Theoretical Framework

The Schema Theory
(David Rumelhart, 1990) Defined schemata (“the building blocks of cognition”) present our personal simplified view over reality derived from our experience and prior knowledge, they enable us to recall, modify our behavior, concentrate attention on key information, or try to predict most likely outcomes of events.

(Carrel, 1981 & Hudson, 1982) When discussing the important role of background knowledge in reading comprehension.The fundamental principle of the schema theory assumes that written text does not carry meaning by itself. Rather, a text only provides directions for readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge.

Reading comprehension levels
(Fergus I. M. Craik & Robert S. Lockhart) Reading comprehension involves two levels of processing, shallow (low-level) processing and deep (high-level) processing. Deep processing involves semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words. Shallow processing involves structural and phonemic recognition, the processing of sentence and word structure, i.e. first-order logic, and their associated sounds.

Three Characteristics of Internal Attention
(Samuels, 1994) Defines three characteristics of internal attention. The first, alertness, is the reader’s active attempt to access relevant schemata involving letter-sound relationships, syntactic knowledge, and word meanings. Selectivity, the second characteristic, refers to the reader’s ability to attend selectively to only that information requiring processing. The third characteristic, limited capacity, refers to the fact that our human brain has a limited amount of cognitive energy available for use in processing information. In other words, if a reader’s cognitive energy is focused on decoding and attention cannot be directed at integrating, relating, and combining the meanings of the words decoded, and then comprehension will suffer. “Automaticity in information processing, then, simply means that information is processed with little attention”. Comprehension difficulties occur when the reader cannot rapidly and automatically access the concepts and knowledge stored in the schemata.

Interactive Consempatory
(Stanovich, 1980) Terms the latter kind of processing interactive-compensatory because the reader (any reader)compensates for deficiencies in one or more of the knowledge sources by using information from remaining knowledge sources. Those sources that are more concerned with concepts and semantic relationships are termed higher-level stimuli; sources dealing with the print itself that are phonics, sight words and other word-attack skills, are termed lower level stimuli. The interactive-compensatory model implies that the reader will rely on higher-level processes when lower-level processes are inadequate, and vice versa. Stanovich (1980) extensively reviews research demonstrating such compensation in both good and poor readers.

Reading Comprehension as Sociocognitive Processing
(R. B. Ruddell ; N. J. Unraul) A sociocognitive processing model takes a constructivist view of reading comprehension; that is, the reader, the text, the teacher, and the classroom community are all involved in the construction of meaning. Ruddell and Ruddell state, “The role of the classroom’s social context and the influence of the teacher on the reader’s meaning negotiation and construction are central to this model it explores the notion that participants in literacy events form and reform meanings in a hermeneutic interpretation circle.

Reading Comprehension as Transactional
(Rosenblatt, 1994) Transactional model takes into account the dynamic nature of language and both aesthetic and cognitive aspects of reading. According to Rosenblatt (1994) “Every reading act is an event, or a transaction involving a particular reader and a particular pattern of signs, a text, and occurring at a particular time in a particular context. Instead of two fixed entities acting on one another, the reader and the text are two aspects of a total dynamic situation. The ‘meaning’ does not reside ready-made ‘in’ the text or ‘in’ the reader but happens or comes into being during the transaction between reader and text. “Thus, text without a reader is merely a set of marks capable
of being interpreted as written language. However, when a reader transacts with the text, meaning happens.

Schemata are not viewed as static but rather as active, developing, and eve changing. As readers transact with text they are changed or transformed, as is the text. Similarly, “the same text takes on different meanings in transactions with different readers or even with the same reader in different contexts or times”.

Reading Comprehension as Influenced by Attitude
(Mathewson’s, 1994) Model of Attitude Influence upon reading and learning to read is derived from the area of social psychology. This model attempts to explain the roles of affect and cognition in reading comprehension. The core of the attitude-influence model explains that a reader’s whole attitude toward reading (i.e., prevailing feelings and evaluative beliefs about reading and action readiness for reading)will influence the intention to read, in turn influencing reading behavior. Intention to read is proposed as the primary mediator between attitude and reading. Intention is defined as “commitment to a plan for achieving one or more reading purposes at a more or less specified time in the future” (Mathewson, 1994). All other moderator variables (e.g. extrinsic motivation, involvement, prior knowledge, and purpose) are viewed as affecting the attitude-reading relationship by influencing the intention to read. Therefore, classroom environments that include well-stocked libraries, magazines, reading tables, and areas with comfortable chairs will enhance students’ intentions to read. Mathewson (1994). “Favorable attitudes toward reading thus sustain intention to read and reading as long as readers continue to be satisfied with reading outcomes.”

Metacognition (Flavell)
(John H. Flavell, 1979) Metacognition is defined in simplest terms as “thinking about your own thinking.” The root “meta” means “beyond,” so the term refers to “beyond thinking.” Specifically, this means that it encompasses the processes of planning, tracking, and assessing your own understanding or performance.

The phrase was termed by American developmental psychologist John H. Flavell in 1979, and the theory developed throughout the 1980s among researchers working with young children in early cognitive stages.

(John B. Watson) Experiments by behaviorists identify conditioning as a universal learning process. There are two different types of conditioning, each yielding a different behavioral pattern:

Classic conditioning occurs when a natural reflex responds to a stimulus. We are biologically “wired” so that a certain stimulus will produce a specific response. One of the more common examples of classical conditioning in the educational environment is in situations where students exhibit irrational fears and anxieties like fear of failure, fear of public speaking and general school phobia.

Behavioral or operant conditioning occurs when a response to a stimulus is reinforced. Basically, operant conditioning is a simple feedback system: If a reward or reinforcement follows the response to a stimulus, then the response becomes more probable in the future. For example, leading behaviorist B.F. Skinner used reinforcement techniques to teach pigeons to dance and bowl a ball in a mini-alley.

Statement of the problem

The main objective of the study is to determine the effect of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) On-Line Learning Site in Improving the Reading Comprehension of Grade 12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Track. In particular, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the level of reading comprehension of the Grade 12 (STEM) Senior High School students before the online Graduate Record Examination (GRE) activity/drill?

2. What is the level of reading comprehension of the Grade 12 (STEM) Senior High School students after the online Graduate Record Examination (GRE activity/drill?

Conceptual Framework

Figure I:

This study aims to know the effect of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) On-Line Learning Site in Improving the Reading Comprehension of Grade 12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Track. The researcher conducts a reading comprehension test, a type of on-line test, to know the level or the capacity of the students in reading comprehension.

This study is conducted to know the breadth of knowledge of certain people like the readers, students and other researchers that can relate to this study. The reading comprehension test is the basis to know the level or the capacity of the students in reading comprehension.

Scope and Delimitation

This study, is focuses on the effect of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) On-Line Learning Site in Improving the Reading Comprehension of Grade 12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Track because it helps them in gauging their capability in terms of reading and it also a preparation for their future career.

In this study, the researcher discusses the effect of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) On-Line Learning Site in Improving the Reading Comprehension of Grade 12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Track.

In general, this study aims to help the Grade 12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Track know their capability in reading, understanding the concept and determine the appropriateness of the language.

Definition of Terms
For the purposes of this study, the following terms are defines as follows:

Technology- is the application of scientific knowledge.

Educational technology- facilitating learning through technology.

Gaming- specialized applications.

Internet- is the global system of interconnected computer networks.

Digital economy- economy that used digital computing technologies.

Application- the act of putting to a special use or purpose.

Reading comprehension- the ability to understand a text.

Lexical Route- dictionary definition.

Sub-Lexical Route- reader can “sound out” a written word.

GRE- The Graduate Record Examination