Dream interpretation , Freud and Jung
Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung regarded dreams as conscious and unconscious interactions. According to their views, the dominant power in dreams was unconscious and their mental activity dominated. Dream interpretation is summarized in psychoanalysis; it is defined as a technique that uncovers the unconscious desires, urge and conflicts of the patient, moving from the symbols in the open contents of dreams.
From Freud’s point of view, dreams assume that the individual has deep needs and desires and that they express satisfaction. According to Freud, dream interpretation is the main door opening unconsciously, and the dream creates a window that allows anyone who dreams to look unconsciously and interpret his dream in his own way (otoanaliz) or under the guidance of a psychoanalyst.
According to Freud, some of the symbols in dreams are universal, they are the same.
In Freud, the symbolic system operates with the application of the rules of distortion in the individual past, especially constructed by the oidipus complex, and the regulation of unconsciousness. According to Carl Gustav Jung’s assumption of “universal consciousness” or “collective memory”, called collective unconscious, individual symbols show the existence of “collective unconscious”, universal by collective unconscious, and in this way they can become archetypes.
Jung, the founder of contemporary psychiatry, who is interested in physics and mythology as well as psychiatry, has come up with a common concept of unconsciousness that all humans have joined, brought about by innate evolution, when Freud starts everything at birth and dreams based on individual consciousness. Today it is called the ontogenetic psyche, including the phylogenetic psyche or the basis of existence. There is a little theology in this new concept that shakes minds that are accustomed to thinking with classical reasoning. The conflict of these two thinkers reflects on genetic engineering and psychobiology.
According to Jung’s new concept, the collective unconscious is an abstract field assumed to be the accumulation of genetic traits, desires and emotions, action-reaction mechanisms and behavioral examples that are decisive roles in the emergence of behavior of human communities throughout history. In other words, the collective unconscious is a kind of common memory or universal consciousness that comes from the ancestors of the ancestors, including the experiences of the ancestors, which have certain influences similar to human instincts. This collective consciousness that exists in everybody is called “primitive and deep basic images” or “models of instinctual behavior” as archetypes (archetypes). Archetypes are the forms of understanding that have been shaped to this day from the animal level of the human brain and consciousness. Humanity, fed from archetypes, is still under the influence of thinking at animal level. They may appear as images and instincts when they are conscious. In the case of unconsciousness called neurosis, sleeping or various states of consciousness, archetypal images are more likely to emerge when they are more immersed in the knowledge of this collective. Here, according to Jung, some common symbols found in dreams and mythologies stemmed from this collective consciousness.
But most of the symbols seen in the dreams usually do not have universal meaning, they carry in individual meaning; that is, according to the values ??of the inner world of the person who sees the dream. The meaning and value that each person gives to the same symbol is not the same. For example, a lion is a fearful, dangerous animal for one person, a symbol of strength, strength for another. Arslan may be related to the danger in the dream of one of two persons, and to the other. In other words, the symbol of horror can be found as a scorpion in the inner world of someone, as a snake in someone else, or as an arsenal in someone else. In other words, in an expression about fear, one can see acrebi, another lion, another serpent in his dream. It is therefore not possible to understand a dream by understanding one’s individual dreams that are formed in accordance with the individual “language of symbols”, but only by one’s own individual analysis, and by way of the books of standard dream expressions. Because the symbols in dreams are shaped according to the feelings, thoughts, knowledge, value judgments, fears, briefly the inner world of anyone who sees the dream.