Haemophilus influenzae can cause a verity of infection. Some common are Meningitis, Cellulites, Epiglottitis and Respiratory disease (Kilian, Mestecky, & Schrohenloher, 1979).
220.127.116.11 Meningitis: –
This bacteria colonize in the nasopharynx, and spread, through direct contact or secretions, and by aerosol, they penetrate through epithelial layers, and capillary endothelium, reach to the meninges directly by lymphatic drainage from the nasopharynx. (Durand et al., 1993). Thus, H. influenzae meningitis patients, 50% of them have a history of prior head trauma with or without a cerebrospinal fluid leak, and others 25% have chronic otitis media (Schut, de Gans, & van de Beek, 2008).
18.104.22.168 Cellulitis and Epiglottitis: –
This bacteria probably cause associated bacteremia, and frequently present in children, than adults epiglottitis, which is regarded as a cellulitis. Cellulitis often involves the face, neck and it sometimes appears to start at the buccle mucosa, and extend outward (Musher, 1983).
22.214.171.124 Respiratory Disease: –
Haemophilus influenzae, a main pathogenic bacteria that colonizes in the respiratory tract. Bacteria adhere to the mammalian tissue, by pili (fimbriae), and cause infection of the upper airways. Some respiratory tract infection caused by Haemophilus influenzae are Sinusitis, Otitis media, Acute Tracheobronchitis, Pnuemonia (Turk, 1984). H influenzae is the main causative agent in causing acute Tracheobronchitis, (pneumonia). In patients with underlying chronic bronchitis emphysema, (obstructive pulmonary disease), suffer from following symptoms, shortness of breath, cough, and sputum; while in severe cases fever, and an increased white blood cell count (WBC) may also be present. Pulmonary infiltrates detectable by radiography (Musher, Kubitschek, Crennan, & Baughn, 1983). H influenzae, can cause of septic arthritis in children, and results from hematogenous spreading. Haemophilus parainfluenzae cause endocarditis which associates with vegetation that immobilize the large arteries, and causing the limbs to turn blue, leads to stroke. Blood culturing test, for identification endocarditis. Haemophilus ducreyi are primary cause of syphilitic chancres traumatic lesions of the penis (especially with bacterial super infection), fixed drug eruptions or ulcerated herpetic lesions (Rudan, Boschi-Pinto, Biloglav, Mulholland, & Campbell, 2008).Vaccination, and prophylactic therapy, are the primary source to prevent serious infection caused by H influenzae. Conjugated therapy of PRP, with a protein (diphtheria toxoid), shows a good antibody responses in infants. These vaccines passed successfully their clinical trials, and currently PRP with membrane proteins, (ribosomes) are in common (Davidson & Wall, 2001).
During sexual intercourse, the chances of spreading of soft chancre, caused by H. ducreyi is best prevented by the use of a condom. Two-thirds of H. ducreyi, produce ?-lactamase enzyme (Ronald & Alfa, 1996). Erythromycin is most effected drug against all H. ducreyi infection (Ison, Dillon, & Tapsall, 1998).
Amoxicillin was found to be an effective drug against otitis media. While Co-amoxilave was found an effective against beta lactamase, produced by Haemophilus influenza and Moraxella catarrhalis species, others antibiotics such as cephalosporin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, macrolides, and tetracycline were also be used. Chemoprophylaxis with daily oral amoxicillin, during winter, and spring months is suggested for Patients with chronic otitis media, and frequent middle ear infection. In children polyvalent pneumococcal vaccines has been evaluated for the prevention of otitis media (Dowell et al., 1999).