nowadays most people are wondering about what is visible to them

nowadays most people are wondering about what is visible to them. when it comes to childhood nutrition the question that comes at the forefront of conversations is malnutrition. malnutrition is the state where there is an inadequate or an excess of energy. it is more than feeling hungry or not having enough food to eat. inadequate intake of protein necessary to keep the body healthy and build muscle calories a measure of energy the body needs iron for proper blood cell function and other nutrients lead several types of malnutrition. jama 2004 whitney and roles 2018 mentioned that malnutrition is caused by a persistent inevitable hunger. most kids in the united states have the opportunity of regular meals nevertheless hunger and malnutrition are quite common especially among those in very low-income families. more than 16 million us children live in households with food insecurity. most of the time it appears early in childhood and results in a complete growth failure. supplying the best nutrition during the first 2 years support an infants growth and development. not doing so will lead to a huge nutrient deficiency. a child with nutrient deficiency may continue to grow however there will be a decline in body functions and the appearances of deficiencies disease. whitney and roles 2018 also infer that short-term and long-term negative effect is associated with nutrient deficiency such as anemia learning disabilities blindness incapacity to work growth and immune defenses. they are more likely to be deficient in iron iodine vitamin a and zinc. jessica bruno 2017 mentioned among all of the short-term negative effects anemia is one of the more common nutritional deficiencies in the world. kids who suffer from anemia do not produce enough hemoglobin for their red blood cells as a result there is a lack of oxygen to carry to the cells. according to whitney and roles 2018 anemia is an iron deficiency and it is considered as a short-term negative effect because it can prevent or solved by a change in diet. like iron deficiency mild lead toxicity has nonspecific symptoms including diarrhea irritability and fatigue. all those symptoms affect kids in their daily activities. furthermore lethargy long-term effects affect children for the rest of their lives and these are irreversible. it includes developmental delays cognitive delays growth delays and decreased muscle mass. whitney et al 2018 consider stunting as one of the foremost long-term effects of malnutrition in kids. referring to beyond malnutrition 2014 studies have connected childhood stunting with iq deficits poor school accomplishment poverty and higher risks for diabetes heart disease and stroke later in life. malnutrition have the potential to postpone a child’s capability to grow normally it makes them less developed comparing to other children of the same age. effect of malnutrition on children 2017 according to who global database 2003 child growth is internationally recognized as an important public health indicator for checking nutritional status and health in populations. children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets and recurrent infections tend to have more frequent episodes of severe diarrhea and are more susceptible to several infectious diseases such as malaria meningitis and pneumonia. a number of studies have proved the association between increasing severity of anthropometric deficits and mortality and the substantial contribution to child mortality of all degrees of malnutrition is now widely accepted. in addition there is convincing evidence that impaired growth is associated with delayed mental development poor school performance and reduced intellectual ability. malnutrition in early childhood can also lead to a severe protein energy deficiency known as marasmus. according to whitney and roles 2018 this word come from greek means dying away. it is defined as a lack of almost all nutrients mostly protein and calories. it is characterized by noticeable and severe weight loss thin skin that is sometimes darker than normal and obvious hair loss effect of malnutrition on children 2017 furthermore the fact that the brain normally almost reaches its full size during the first two years of life marasmus weakens it development. the reactions in the body are becoming slow and also the temperature of the body is lower due to a little or no fat under the skin. these result from the reduced synthesis of key hormones. professional health workers discover that kids with marasmus need to be dressed all the time in order to keep the required body temperature. also they need affection and attention from their parents because most of the time they are less advanced in their mental and physical development for their age whitney and roles 2018