The electric guitar is a very popular instrument in the music industry, used by almost every modern band in a variety of different genres of music. This instrument produces sound different from the conventional guitars although it looks very similar. It operates on the principle of magnetism and the sound this instrument produces is not very audible on its own, which is why it needs to be paired with an amplifier for the sound to be properly augmented and enjoyed. The electric guitar uses a complexed magnetism circuit that converts the movement of the strings into electric pulses that are in turn changed into actual sound. main parts of an electric guitar that produces the sound based off of the principle of magnetism are the pickups and the strings
The components of an electric guitar.
1. Strap connected at base.
2. Tone controls for front and rear pickups.
3. Volume controls for front and rear pickups.
4. Bridge supports strings so they vibrate freely clear of case.
5. Case made from maple, rose, and mahogany woods.
6. Rear pickup.
7. Front pickup.
8. Rhythm/treble selector switch.
9. Fretboard with inlays made from mother of pearl.
11. Tuning pegs make strings looser or tighter to adjust pitch.
12. Small dots are magnets in pickups (see also inset photo to the right).
13. Pickguard (also called a scratch plate) protects wooden case from overly enthusiastic fingers plucking downward!
OPERATION BASED OF FARADAY’S LAW
The sound of an electric guitar is produced when the guitar senses string vibration electronically and directs a signal to the amplifier. The movement is sensed electronically by a magnetic pickup which is located on the guitar body under the wire strings as shown below:
Photo: Electromagnetism at work: a closeup view of the pickups under the strings of an electric guitar. Photo by Arif Patani courtesy of US Navy.
The pickup of an electric guitar is basically constructed of a bar magnet that is wrapped with thousands of turns of coil fine wire. The magnets produce a magnetic field that is transferred through the strings. This causes the metal strings to turn magnetized, and when strummed, the vibration created induces a small electric current that flow through the wire pickup coils. The signals from the pick-up coil are then sent to an amplifier, who as the name implies amplifies the sound and sends it to the output that is usually a loud speaker. The following diagram shows the layout of the process.
i. The grey bar magnet (1) generates a magnetic field round itself.
ii. The magnetic field lines (2) expands imperceptibly upward through the metal guitar strings that are situated over the pickup.
iii. The brown Guitar string (3) close to the gains magnetism by the magnetic field. When the string is strummed or plucked (vibrates), it creates its own magnetic field.
iv. The yellow coil wire (4) that is wrapped over the pickup, senses this magnetic field. A minor electric current is created in the coil due to the magnetic field.
v. The amplifier (5) boost the low input signal so as to make it powerful enough to drive a loudspeaker.
vi. The loudspeaker (6) changes the current into sound that we can listen to and enjoy.