Question1 a

Question1

a) Definition
• Leadership means “the ability of an individual to influence ,motivate and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members.
• Management comprises directing and controlling a group of one or more people.

b) Personality Styles
• Is often called brilliant and mercurial, with great charisma.
• Tend to be national, under control problem solvers.

Orientation
• People-oriented
• Task-oriented

Focus
• Leading people
• Managing Risk

Outcomes
• Achievements
• Results

Styles
• Transformational, Consultative ad Participate
• Transactional, Autocratic and Democratic

Question 2
a) Examples of how the role of a leader and function of a manager apply in different situational context.

• A leader’s approach will be different and will invovle others effected by their decisions.
• The leader will consult and use different approaches depending upon the situational analysis and the demand of the task to fulfil the organization’s goals.
• Managers usually focuses on themselves since they are trained for the job authority and responsibility of the decision making for the assined tasks .
• The manager will take the decision and consider alignments with the orgnizational goals.

Situational context

• The managers can plan the strategies such as selection of suppliers who can provide the raw material at lower cost. The leaders in “Tunetalk” use their trait to motivate the employees to adopt advance technologies in order to lower the cost of manufacturing and allowing them to use their skills.

• Management by objective is the theory which focuses on the combined efforts of the managers and the employees for the accomplishment of the goals. The managers work with the employees and set the standards of the performance and the leaders delegate the duties to the employees so that they are motivated to perform their task best.

• Behavioral theory of management is applied in “Tunetalk” and the managers follow the policies which take into consideration the skills and abilities of the employees and the leaders use the transformational style of leadership where the leaders communicate with the employees and the policies are defined to the employees in an effective way.

• Contingency theory focuses the change in the strategies according to the changes in the situations. The leaders play an important role in which they influence the employees to bring changes in the operations The managers of “Tunetalk” considers the reasons of the increased cost of manufacture and applied the theory to implement some changes in the operational activities to bring down the high prices of the materials and equipment received from the suppliers.

b) Task oriented leaders
• A task-oriented leader is someone who focuses on overall success through the completion of tasks. This type of leader usually does not focus on building relationship as he/she cares about workers meeting particular goal.
• A task-oriented leader sees a goal, creates a step-by-step plan to reach that goal, creates a work schedule and then expects workers to follow that schedule.
People oriented leaders
• A people-oriented leader focuses on creating overall success by building lasting relationships with employees.
• This type of leader does care about tasks and schedules, but he/she believes that work culture is more important. A people-oriented leader uses relationship building techniques.
Situaltional leadership model
• Telling (S1): In this leadership style, the leader tells people what to do and how to do it.
• Selling (S2): This style involves more back-and-forth between leaders and followers. Leaders “sell” their ideas and message to get group members to buy into the process.
• Participating (S3): In this approach, the leader offers less direction and allows members of the group to take a more active role in coming up with ideas and making decisions.
• Delegating (S4): This style is characterized by a less involved, hands-off approach to leadership. Group members tend to make most of the decisions and take most of the responsibility for what happens

c) Task oriented leader

Strengths
• Communicate their goals clearly
• Outline tasks specifically
• Issue clear deadlines

Weaknesses
• Show little regard for employee welfare
• Create a tense work environment
• Squelch innovation and creativity
• Diminish employee morale

People oriented leader
Strengths
• Motivated to work and improves morale
• More engaged in day-to-day tasks
• Employees feel valued
• Effienciency improves

Weaknesses
• takes time to build the company culture
• no clear view
• need more direction due to ineffective decisons

d) The theory of human relation are reasonably concerned with human factors. The Human relation theory focuses on inspiration, leadership, and group motivation. At the focal point of the efforts are assumptions about the relationship between the manager and the worker.

Contingency theory emphasizes that the decisions made by the manager are based on the present circumstances rather than following the method one size fits all. An appropriate action is taken by the manager depending on the features significant to the present situation. A manager n an organization would want to utilize an autocratic approach while the leader in a team would want participation from employees.

Coaching leadership involves teaching and supervising followers. A coaching leader is highly operational in setting where results/ performance require improvement. Basically, in this kind of leadership, followers are helped to improve their skills. Coaching leadership does the following: motivates followers, inspires followers and encourages followers.

Question 3
a) Key approaches to operations management

• Operations management is an important area for managing a firm. The Key approaches are a reduced waste of resources, operational management is concerned with material and labor.
• The most efficient conversion to the finished product and service process with minimal waste of resources.
The role is:
– Leader
– Monitor
– Disseminator
– Negotiator
– Spokesperson

b) The importance and value of operations management
– The importance of operations is how to manage and increase productivity, the main purpose of operation is to ensure timely delivery of goods.
We can use P.O.LC to support.
P.O.L.C
– P.O.L.C is learning from the work to help managers solve the problem easily. P.O.L.C is Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling.
Planning
– Planning is plan before the things start, set goals and actual planning to complete it.
Organizing
– organizing is organizational structure and allocating people.
Leading
– Leading first must have a leader, a good leader is important, a leader must be responsible for their position, because leader is leading their subordinates, everyone or following the instruction of the leader.

Controlling
– Controlling, controlling is taking corrective action when necessary, controlling also need requires a clear understanding of where responsibility.

c) Leader and managers improve efficiencies of operations management
Leader Managers
Keep goals Clear and Focused
Clearly let employees know the goals and matters that should be noted at work. Match Tasks to Skills
Assign work and skills to employees appropriately.
Motivating
As a Leader, the employees should be appropriately motivated to give employees an incentive. Managing
As a manager, should manage your work scope by your own author.
Communicate Effectively
Achieve consensus with subordinates, understand employees’ ideas and considerate employees. Explaining
Explain to employees about work problems or discuss solutions.

Question 4
a) Factors within the business environment that influence upon operational management and decision making by leaders and managers.

• Business environment factors that affecting influence decision making is Economic Dimension which mean the exchange rate, economic system.
• Technological environment which decide the way to convert the resources to product.
• Political dimension which mean law of business relationship between business and government.
• Social cultural which mean custom moral values and characteristics, culture of society.

b) Factors affect the business environment and wider community.

• First for economic factors, this will decide the purchasing power of people and affecting your product selling.
• Second, technological decide how much cost and time to produce your product and affecting the price of the product.
• Third is political, political situation will affect your product price and even quantity.
• For an example political will decide how much tax will add on your product.

c) Evaluate applications of operations management and factors that impacts on the wider business environment.

• Are control and distribution which is a system that controlling the producing.
• Second is transformation of raw materials that converted into goods was effectiveness or not.
• Third is process design and forth was capacity management that ensuring the effectiveness of producing.