Recent trend of ICT, Using of ICT, ICT Policy and Cyber Security of Bangladesh
Information and communications technology or (ICT) is extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications 1and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. 2
The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management.
ICT is a broad subject and the concepts are evolving. 3 The term covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form, e.g. personal computers, digital television, email, robots. For clarity, Zippo provided an ICT hierarchy where all levels of the hierarchy “contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications”. 4 Theoretical differences between interpersonal-communication technologies and mass-communication technologies have been identified by the philosopher Piyush Mathur. 5 Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st century. 6
Recent trend of ICT
Within Information and Communication Technologies, there are many current trends. These may include:
Use of interactive learning
Online shopping, advertising and selling
Sharing and Displaying 7
On devices such as:
Computer software including mind mapping tools (inspiration) and visualization software (google earth). As well as this – internet which allows for all ICT current trends such as networking (blogs, email). 8
Mobile phones (calling and texting)
Smart phones (video, internet, email, calling, texting, camera)
Gaming consoles (play station, Gameboy, Wii
Digital and video cameras with printers or display units such as digital photo frames
iPod and iPads
Digital keyboards, drawing tablets
Learning objects (please view the example below) 9
Uses of ICT
The whole world is now a village through the effective use of ICT. In most developing countries, access to ICT based information is very limited, but we will have to have tried to implement it in our country for our next generation. Information system that focuses on managing data and information, Control system a system that controls machines. It uses inputs, processes the input, and provides output. Third is the Communication system, which deals with transfer of data from one place to another. Organizing and processing the data of an organization can provide useful information. These can be communicated for effective use and decision making. Then, there is the question of information flow, access, storage, shared resources, and proper use of information in real time for decision-making. In order to provide information at a very high speed at any time and at any place, we need a communication network and media. These are internet, telephone, mobile phone, TV, radio and office automation systems such as word-processing, fax, audio conferencing, video conferencing, computer conferencing, multimedia, etc. through the use of networks of satellite and fiber optics.
The internet now enables broadcasts from radio and TV stations to be “time shifted” by the users, who watch or listen to the programs whenever they want to. Mobile phone, TV, broad-band internet access, and digital broadcasting can be used in the e-community center. Information about cyclones, weather, health, business, education, and jobs should be provided from an e-community center based on ICT. News services and the mass media are making themselves available so that people can access them when they want and wherever they are. The socio-economic conditions of many developing countries have been improving very quickly through application of modern ICT, and through the creation of various categories of skills in this field. Building information and knowledge-based systems in all ministries and in the private sector of Bangladesh is essential for socio-economic development. Data and information of different sectors in all ministries may be processed/stored/exchanged using e-government and e-governance based on ICT. Due to Cyclone Sidr many lives (of both people and domestic animals) were lost, along with damage to crops, houses, trees, and infrastructure in the south-east region of Bangladesh. The loss in lives would have been many times more if warning signals had not been not received in time through ICT based systems.
Prime areas for implementation of ICT are education, health, agriculture, commerce and industry and family planning. First priority should be given to the Election Commission for making acceptable voter list and holding national election based on ICT system. One of the application areas of ICT is poverty elimination of the people in rural areas by providing necessary information about work, business, selling of goods, providing knowledge about prices and availability of daily necessary items for survival, heath care, food, shelter, education etc.Most of the farmers, fishermen and businessmen need to borrow money for improving their professional works. In the agricultural sector, cultivators, women/housewives, and education workers in rural areas need proper information and guidelines about their works. It is possible to provide them information and training through an e-community center. Many people in rural and urban areas are facing problems due to lack of proper information and guidelines about their daily essential activities and requirements of life. E-community centers can play a vital important role by providing reliable and fast information for the people in time and at any place.Another major application of ICT based systems is outsourcing work. Many developed companies run their organizations by using people situated in different countries in the world with less payment. Many qualified persons in ICT field in Bangladesh can earn $ 8/10 thousand per month, with a microcomputer and a broadband high-speed internet connection.ICT based tele-centers have been set up in many developing countries in Asia and Africa. Nowadays, there is an information super-highway, and we need to link up with it from all parts of the country.
There is a plan to set up 40,000 tele centers, by 2011, for the poor and rural people to access necessary information in real time. One of the earliest attempts in Bangladesh to set up a tele-center was made by Grameen phone in October 1999. Cellular phone-based information services provided by “mobile phone ladies,” pioneered by Grameen Telecom, earned international recognition. The government is planning to introduce e-government and e-governance through ICT. Nowadays, there are digital markets for on-line shopping. In our country, the major foreign exchange earners are the garments and textile sectors. Bangladesh government is making voter/national ID card, and people can use that card for many purposes. If the government makes proper plan and policy to implement ICT based activities in the next five years then we will need nearly 10,000 ICT workers of all categories per year. So, initiative taken by educational institutions to teach ICT depends on demand. Another important application area of ICT is on-line education system for aged people, house- wives, people who did not have the opportunity of education in time, and people who want to build career in new fields. In that system students will attend on-line virtual classes when they remain free. So, an on-line learning system needs to prepare lectures based on multimedia system. One teacher can teach a very large number of students on-line, and they can access lectures at any time from any place. Examinations must be held on-line, and examinees will answer questions within a fixed time. This on-line system is very popular all over the world. GRE and TOEFL examinations are the best examples of on-line exam systems. All people appreciate this system, and real learners can be identified through an on-line exam system. Printing materials, lectures in CDs, and TV and radio are OK for distance learning, but without on-line exam systems it is difficult to examine the learners. So, ICT education must be given from school level up to university level. 10
National ICT is headed by the Honorable Prime Minister. ICT has been given considerable importance prime minister office in the last few years. The ministry of Science and Technology has been renamed as the primary hub for ICT policy and implementation in the country.
Board areas of ICT Policy:
Support ICT industry
ICT capacity building
Application of ICT for Socio-Economic Development
Financing of ICT related projects
Research and Development in ICT
The council of minister endorsed the draft national information and communication technology policy-2015, which clams “the ICT policy will be less regulatory but more developmental and promotional”. The policy will be implemented in three phases. Short goals are expected to be attained by 2016, mid-term goals by 2018 and long-term goals one’s by 2021. 15
The government has adopted a cyber-security declaration 2017 asking organizations to develop actionable cyber security road maps to be approved and monitored by the top management. The declaration, signed by honorable State Minister for ICT Zunaid Ahmed Palak, was released on Thursday. It has been prepared and adopted at the end of the international cyber security conference which was held in Dhaka on March 9. International cyber security experts and representatives of local and foreign technologists, cyber security giants and diplomats participated in the conference. The declaration said that the cyber organizations would have to update their org-charts identifying role, responsible for cyber secured operations of the organizations, entrusted with clear mandate, responsibilities and budget. Putting emphasis on ensuring more robust cyber security in the respective organization, the declaration said the cyber security-conscious organizations are to ensure that the member of staff appointed to cyber security role will report directly to the top management. The declaration said the nature and scope of cyber threats dictate that sustainable security of operations cannot be ensured by technology alone.
Organizations must embrace cyber security as they are embracing computerization, digitization and online operations, the declaration said, adding that the management must own cyber security and act without delay. The declaration categorically said that every organization bear full responsibility for its own cyber security and of other government or other organizations may assist in this matter. The more important digital assets like personal/identity data of population, property rights records, the organization manages, the more robust cyber security must be ensured in that organization, the declaration said. It added that national organizations like Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) can address only specific national threats and they are not expected to ensure operations at individual organization level. 18
Basic ICT course should be compulsory in all form of education
Personnel with basic ICT knowledge should be appointed in form of educational
Use of ICT and multimedia in the education makes it interesting and fruitful
Website of the institution should be compulsory along with regular updates
Central registration system for the students should be implemented mandatorily
Use of student database, automated account in the institutions for faster administration should be employed
Facilitating electronic professional research journal and periodicals access to foster the level of technology
Making an open platform to share the academic and other relevant thoughts among vast people which would dimensionally the incepted concepts
Establishment of digital libraries or information repository
In disseminating ICT and new technologies which may improve the overall life style of the mass people may be acquainted through conferences, workshops and other technical gathering
The recommendations to government therefore are wide-ranging and encompass proposed policies for range of department and entities
Minimizing skills gap
Inclusive ICT industry growth
Rationalizing electricity costs
Restrictions on substitutive IT/ITES imports with relaxations of operating system, database not locally developed
Creating further awareness on tax, vat, customs duty, cash incentives etc.
Declaring more cash incentives
Engaging local IT/ITES firms with mega project
Easy access to finance
Single digit interest rate on credit
Additional funds for research and development
The digital revolution that Bangladesh is going through now is principally backed by its home-grown multi-dimensional ICT industry. 13 To scale up national productivity and efficiency through appropriate use of ICT and in order to maintain 10 per cent GDP growth in next two decades escaping the middle-income country trap, it is required to continue policy reforms. What’s highly necessary now is to support the country’s thriving ICT industry that is making us proud every day. 16 17
Developing country like Bangladesh can use ICTs to turn the micro mobility of micro finance into macro finance to become a middle-income level country from poor level. Access to data services allows organizations to provide basic information such as protection against dangerous conditions such as avian influenza and other diseases, surgery times and how to obtain vaccinations. Mobile communications provide these capabilities to all sectors of society, whilst fixed services do not. In developing countries, fixed services are generally only available to wealthy individuals and corporations.
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