There are two main types of bone marrow transplant. The first one is the Autologous transplant. This involves using the person’s own stem cells. They typically involve harvesting the cells before beginning a damaging therapy to cells like chemotherapy or radiation. After the treatment is done, the cells are returned to the body. This type of transplant isn’t always available. It can only be used if the person have a healthy bone marrow. However, it reduces the risk of some serious complications. The second one is Allogeneic transplant. This involve using cells from a donor. The donor must be a close genetic match. Often, a compatible relative is the best choice, but genetic matches can also be found from a donor registry. This transplant is necessary if a person have a condition that has damaged bone marrow cells. However, they have a higher risk of certain complications. The person also probably need to be put on medications to suppress the immune system so that the body doesn’t attack the new cells.
Let’s say a person whose bone marrow was destroyed because of chemotherapy or a disease. A doctor or a professional will recommend a transplant, this is because bone marrow are the ones that generates blood cells, which is the major function of a bone marrow. So, the doctor will recommend a type of transplant based mostly on the disease the person have. Other factors include the health of the bone marrow, age and general health. For example, if this person have cancer or other disease in the bone marrow, they will probably have an Allogeneic transplantation. In this situation, doctors do not recommend using their own stem cells.
A bone marrow transplant has many risks of complications and some are potentially fatal. The risk can depend on many factors, including the type of disease or condition, the type of transplant, and the age and health of the person receiving the transplant. Though some people experience minimal problems with a bone marrow transplant, others may develop complications that may require treatment or hospitalization. Some complications could even be life-threatening. Like, Graft-versus-host disease, this is when the donor stem cells that make up the persons new immune system see the body’s tissues and organs as something foreign and attack them. Others like organ damage, infections, cataracts, infertility, new cancers, and unfortunately, death.
The success or effectiveness of a bone marrow transplant is primarily dependent on how closely the donor and recipient genetically match. Sometimes, it can be very difficult to find a good match among unrelated donors. The state of engraftment will be regularly monitored. Engraftment is when the blood-forming cells that the person received on transplant day starts to grow and make healthy blood cells which is an important milestone in the transplant recovery. It’s generally complete between 10 and 28 days after the transplant. The first sign of engraftment is a rising white blood cell count. This shows that the transplant is starting to make new blood cells.
Typical recovery time for a bone marrow transplant is about three months. However, it may take up to a year to fully recover. Recovery depends on many factors like how the person is being treated, chemotherapy, radiation, donor match and where the transplant is performed. There is also a possibility that some of the symptoms that the person experience after the transplant will remain with them for the rest of their life.
For the pros and cons Im going to use a person with leukemia to make a detailed explanation of the transplant. So a pro would be is the effectiveness. This is an effective treatment, either curing the disease or extending the time that a patient lives disease free. While the effectiveness of the procedure cannot be denied, it is an invasive medical procedure with a long list of complications and side effects. The cons for the transplant are the complications that come with it. There are two different periods where complications can develop during a bone marrow transplant for leukemia. During the actual infusion process, it is common for the patient to experience hives, fever, chills, and pain. During the recovery period, the patient may also develop mouth sores, be extremely weak, develop nausea and diarrhea, and go through periods of confusion and emotional distress. The recovery period of a bone marrow transplant for leukemia includes weeks of staying in the hospital, extreme vulnerability to infection, the need for blood transfusions, and the requirement to stay in a clean environment.