Understand health and safety legislation and regulations 1 Explain how health and safety legislation and regulations are implemented in own work setting Within my work setting all the health and safety legislations and regulations are put into place the employer it is their responsibility to do this

Understand health and safety legislation and regulations
1 Explain how health and safety legislation and regulations are implemented in own work setting

Within my work setting all the health and safety legislations and regulations are put into place the employer it is their responsibility to do this. It is also their responsibility to make sure all staff are aware of all the legislations and regulations put in to place and to make sure that all staff are following them through correctly. This falls under the health and safety at work act 1974. This act keeps both the employer and the employee safe while at work.
When staff start work at my setting they have to sign a form to say that they have read every policy and procedure in which the setting follows. This form will include policies such as
The health and safety at work act- this covers the health and safety of both the adults and the children within the setting. Making sure things such as first aid kits are full and available and appropriate and there are an appropriate number of trained first aiders.
COSHH- this is the control of substances hazardous to health. This has to be implemented by the employer to make the setting safe for both the workers and the children’s.
RIDDOR- this makes the employers responsible of reporting certain types of incidents, accidents and illnesses to local authority. This will be things such a death of a person, a major injury to a person both adults and children.
MANUAL HANDLINGS – this sets out the guidance of minimising risks when lifting and carrying
FOOD HYGINE – This is put into place to make sure that all the food that is being prepared and served is safe for the children to eat. All staff who prepare food for the children within the setting need to have their health and hygiene qualification to do so.
SMOKING POLICY – within my setting you are not permitted to smoke on the little cherub’s grounds or outside the nursery. This policy is for both staff and adults that attend the setting.
FIRE DRILLS – these are carried out every month t make sure that all staff are aware and knowledgeable about what they have to do in case a fire was to happen at the setting.
RISK ASSESSMENT FORMS- there are risk assessment forms for a lot of things within my setting. One of the risk assessment forms that have to be filled out is the daily checklist. This is filled out by the first person to come into the nursery in the morning and the last person to leave. This makes sure that the setting is safe to use and that there are no risks or hazards to both the adults and the children.
RATIOS – This must be implemented at all times. The ratios within the setting are:
Under one and one-year olds: one to every three children
Two-year olds: one to every four children
Three-year olds and above: one to every eight children
REGISTERS- these must be done every day within the setting for both adults and children. When every adult comes into the setting that have to sign in. This includes visitors as well on a separate register. Within my setting we have a register that we must sign the children in on and this information is then put into a register book.

2 Identify sources of current guidance for planning healthy and safe environments

Current sources of guidance for planning healthy and safe environments can start with Ofsted. Ofsted have the power to shut down any nursery it believes that is not providing healthy and safe environments for children. Ofsted will visit the work setting and grade the nursery on different factors such as teaching, learning, health and safety and general well being of the children within the setting. Ofsted can give the setting a report on where they need to improve and what needs to be done by the next visit to make sure that the setting will remain open.
Health and safety executive is also another guidance. This relates to all types if work issues and will cover all aspects of health and safety. They help people to understand the health and safety at work act. They help settings to comply with laws and are also there for just general advice that any settings may need.
Department for schools and families is also another guide that can be used. They work to improve the opportunities and experiences available to children. There main priority is to make sure that children have an excellent quality of provision.
My own workplaces policies and procedures is also a great place for guidance as it has all things relating to my own setting. These can be found I the main office and in the main building. The booklet will contain every policy and procedure that my setting follows. If I was to need guidance on any of these I can refer back to the booklet.

Understand how to carry out physical care routines
1 Identify the physical care routines which may be carried out

Within my work setting there are many different care routines which can be carried out including changing nappies, toilet training, meal times and washing hands. All of these things are carried out on a daily basis and it is important to carry them out correctly to make them most effective and protect the wellbeing of the children. There are policies for all of the care routines that are carried out within my setting and theses are to be followed every time these physical care routines are carried out.

2 Describe how to plan and carry out physical care routines suitable to the age, stage and needs of the child

Changing nappies –
There is a nappy chart that is in place within the room. This has the names of the children who are in that day that need to have their nappies changed and at what time they should be changed. After each child is changed the practitioner is to write it down using their initials and indicate weather it was a poo or a wee or if the child was dry. This has to be conducted for each child every time that they are changed.
With this physical care routine, the practitioner needs to ensure that they are following the procedures set out to do this. All staff must wear PPE. The practitioner must put on gloves and an apron before changing a child. You must let the child know that you are going to change their nappy and talk to them or sing to them while you are changing their nappy as this will help them to feel comfortable and also gives a bonding opportunity. You must safely lift the child up and place them onto the changing mat. When changing the child, you must make sure to dispose of everything correctly. Once the child is clean and has been set off the changing mat you must clean down the surface and dispose of apron and gloves before changing another child.
It is important for children to have their nappies changed regularly, this will keep the child clean and happy. Changing children often will also help prevent nappy rash and the child becoming upset.

Toilet training
When toilet training it is advised that the parent is mirroring this at home as well so that the child does not become confused. It is discussed with the parent as to weather they are using a potty or weather they are training on the toilet. Once this has been established then a plan can be set into place as to how to move forward with the child’s toilet training. Staff within the room will always have a plan in place that the parent is happy with also. The parent is kept up to date at pick up time as to how their child has done throughout the day and if there are any changes that need to make to the child’s toilet training plan.
All staff within the room will be aware that the child is toilet training. The child will be reminded regularly to go to the toilet or encouraged to use the potty to try and go to the toilet. There is also a chart for this to mark down when the child goes to the toilet or potty and weather they did a wee or a poo. This will be continued until the child is fully confident to go to the toilet unaided and without reminder.

Meal times

There is a set menu in place so that the staff are aware of what the children are eating and to make sure they are getting all their nutritional needs. The number of children has to be given to the chef to ensure that there is the right amount of food. Allergies and dietary requirements are also given to the chef to make sure that the children are eating the correct food.
At meal times the children sit at the table and have a plate a knife, fork and a cup. There are dishes in the middle of the table with all available food in them. The children are free to choose what they want to eat and help themselves to the food and put what they want on their plates. There is a water jug on the table and the children are free to help themselves to water when the want to throughout the whole of meal time. Adults sit with the children and are there to support and encourage the children with serving themselves and trying a bit of everything on offer.

Washing hands

There is always soap and paper towels available within the toilet for the children to use. The children are always asked to clean their hands before and after every meal time or snack time. When the children use the toilet, they are also encouraged to wash their hands after. Within the bathroom there are pictures of how to wash your hands for the children, Staff always set good role modelling by washing their hands before and after every meal time. The younger children are helped to wash their hands and after meal times are helped to wipe their hands and faces.

3 Explain potential dilemmas between the rights and choices of children and health and safety requirements

There is a potential dilemma with the rights and choices if children and health and safety requirements as the UN convention states that children have the right to their own choices however as a practitioner you have to access the risk of children’s choices. Children have the right to make their own choices however sometimes are unable to assess the risk behind their actions. So, children should be left to make their own choices and practitioners should enable the children to do so and also making sure that they are safe. An example of this could be an adult in the outside area sweeping the garden and a child makes the choice to join in and help. The choice of the child is to sweep. The practitioner has to access the risk whilst still allowing the child to sweep. The practitioner would give the child a child sized broom and explain to the child how to use the broom safely by not running with it and swinging it around. This then achieves the child’s choice and the health and safety requirement.
Understand why health and well-being is important for babies and children
1 Analyse the importance of health and well-being for babies and children

2 Describe ways of promoting healthy lifestyles for babies and children

It is very important as a practitioner to promote healthy lifestyles to babies and children. Ways of which I do this within my own setting includes
Eating with the children- This will encourage them to try new foods and to eat healthy. There may be times when children do not want to eat, or they do not want to try the food that they have been given. Within this situation it is good to promote that you are eating the same thing and are trying it and to encourage the child to do the same thing and the child will be more willing to try the food.
Food activities – It is good to plan activities for children to learn thing such as healthy eating. This can be from simply putting real foods in the home corner and seeing where the children then take the fruit and incorporate it into their play. It could be food tasting. This would give the children a chance to try foods which they may have never tried and to talk about what healthy and un healthy foods are.
Cooking- There is no better way for a child to understand then for them to do it themselves. Having the children do things such a prepare their own snacks or prepare things for meal times is a great way to promote healthy lifestyles. Also having them cook things such a bread they then get to see all the ingredients which are in bread and again cooking is a great way to have conversations with the children about what a healthy diet entails.
Growing with the children – Having the children be involved on growing and seeing where fruit and vegetables come from is a great way for them to learn. They will plant it and then have to water it until the plant is grown. The child within my setting then in cooperate these plants in to play and into cooking activities that we have in the room.
Understand how to keep children safe and secure in early years settings
1 Analyse the role of practitioners in keeping children safe and secure

2 Identify own responsibilities in relation to health and safety
While at work I am ultimately responsible for my own health and safety. I am also responsible for the health and safety of the children within the setting. I must make sure that I am always filling out the daily risk assessment check within the room. I am also responsible for making sure that children are signed in and out correctly. I am also responsible for minimising risks such as if I see a spillage to make sure that I am cleaning it up to make sure that no one slips and has an accident. I am responsible for making sure that all equipment is safe to use and anything that is broken or damaged is removed and disposed of correctly. I am also responsible for minimising risk for the children on a day to day basis.

3 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained

Health and safety is monitored in my setting in many different ways. It is monitored through the daily checklist form. On this form their practitioners have the ability to write any concerns or anything that needs to be fixed on here. Mangers within the setting check the list weekly and will sort any concerns that people have. However, if the risk is major then it can be reported straight to the manager and they will deal with it straight away.
Adults and visitors will follow the policies and procedures while in the setting it is also good to teach these to the children. Health and safety can be taught to the children through things such as handwashing, not running inside, tucking chairs n after they have finished, telling adults about spillages. You can teach the children this through general talks when things happen in the room or with stories at circle time about staying safe both at nursery and outside of nursery.
It is my managers responsibility to make sure that everyone knows the policies and procedures of health and safety and are following them through correctly. The policies and procedures within the setting are to be checked at least every year. This way it makes sure that if anything needs to be updated or changed that this can be done as soon as it is needed to be done.

4 Describe how people in own work setting are made aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work safely

Firstly, people are made aware by having to read all the policies and procedures in the induction before beginning work within the setting. Here they will read all about what is expected of them and things that they have to follow through to keep themselves, other adults and the children within the setting safe. Everyone who completes the induction process is obliged to sign to say that they have read the policies and procedures and that they will carry these out while at work. Anyone who breaks policy and procedure will be reported to management who will then deal with this accordingly to what was done.
Also, within my work setting we have a lot of training to make sure that all staffs knowledge and practice is up to date. This includes first aid training where all staff are trained to be able to administer first aid as and when they need to within the setting.
Staff meetings will also be a place where staff are made aware of hazards and risks. This then gives the opportunity to discuss things in a lot more detail so that all staff are aware and so that they -do not put themselves or others at any further risk.
Within my work setting there are lots of signs and information around to encourage myself and other staff to work safely. There are hand washing signs all around he setting to make sure that people do not forget to wash their hands. There are signs on the kitchen doors reminding people not to take the children into the kitchen as this is a big risk to the children. There are also signs that tell staff and parents to be careful when opening and closing doors to make sure that they are aware of children and look before they enter and exit rooms so that they do not injure children in this process. Whenever the floor is wet from spillages or wet from weather there will be yellow floor signs put down saying “caution wet floor” this sign informs staff of the hazard and therefore helps them to eliminate any risks around that area.
Within my setting I am required to report any thing which may be a broken or dangerous to my manger therefore they can then take the action to remove it or to fix it.
Understand how to respond to accidents and emergency situations

1 Identify accidents and emergency situations which may occur in an early years setting

There are many different things that could happen within an early year setting these can include:
Missing child

2 Explain how to respond to accidents and emergency situations

If there was an accident to happen within my setting I would make sure that the child was ok. I would use my first aid training to treat the child if they needed it and make sure that they are ok before letting them go. I would then have to record the accident and would inform other staff in the room of the accident and inform parents upon arrival. However, if the accident was more serios I may have to call the parents before hand so that they are aware of what has happened to their child before they collect them from nursery. The accident book is reviewed monthly by the room lead and the manager of my setting. This way they can see if there are any hazards within the room that are causing accidents and act upon this.
If an emergency was to occur within my work setting. I would follow the policies and procedures and any drills we have done before. My ultimate priority would be to keep my self and the children with the setting safe. (see question 4 for how I would record these things)

3 Explain how to avoid injuries in early years settings

To avoid injuries within my setting the first thing myself and other practitioners can do is to make sure that we are following policies and procedures at all time. I should always make sure that areas are safe for both staff and children to be in. When children are playing they need to be supervised at all times to make sure that they are not hurting each other or doing anything that would cause them harm. I would let children be able to take risks in a safe and supervised way so that they can still learn and explore but still have the safety of me being there to make sure that they are not getting hurt.
Making sure the children have a good understanding of safety such as knowing when things are hot so that they should not touch it. This can be done through verbally talking to the children and making them aware when these situations occur and also through stories at circle time.
Making sure that things that children should not have are being kept out of reach so that they do not come into contact with them or try to ingest them. This can be things such as cleaning products. All cleaning products are kept out of child’s reach in a cupboard and after every use they are then put straight back into this cupboard.

4 Describe the procedures for recording and reporting accidents and other emergencies in own setting

If an accident was to occur within my setting I would record it within the accident book/ on an incident form. This needs to be filled out by the person that witnessed this happen. The information that needs to be filled is:
• The child’s name
• The child’s D.O.B
• The time and date of the accident
• Where the accident took place
• A clear account as to what happened and how the child reacted
• Treatment that was given
• Any other action taken
• Parents signature
This is then to be signed by the practitioner who filled out this information and then also by a witness to this as well. If the accident was serious then the manager would be informed and the carer of the child.
This must be done with every accident that the children have at nursery. This will help keep a record if there are anything in the setting that are causing accidents and need to be taken out or changed to make it safer for the children.
Understand prevention and control of infection in early years settings

1 Explain how to prevent the spread of infection in early years settings

There are many different ways to prevent the spread of infection within an early years setting these can include

Hand washing – Making sure children and adults wash hands before and after meals, after coming in from outside, after touching any animals or contaminated surfaces and after coughing or sneezing

Cleaning the environment – the setting needs to be clean at all times. This includes any surfaces or sides and any toys that the children play with. This includes keeping the nappy area clean and ready to use after every use. This will help keep the spread of infection to a minimum.

PPE (personal protective equipment) – wearing this will help protect the child but also the adult.

Body fluids bucket – having one of these will help keep infections from spreading, it has all the right equipment in it to clean and dispose of any bodily fluids. This will contain and prevent any infections

Management of waste – this is all bins including nappy waste. Disposing of nappies correctly is very important to not spread germs and infections. Making sure bins are lined correctly and that bins are clean. Also, bins should be emptied regularly by someone wearing PPE.

Beds/Linen – Each child should have their own bedding that is labelled for them. Anytime any bedding gets dirty it should be washed or put into the laundry. All bedding should be cleaned at least once a week.

2 Identify childhood infections

This is very common for children however it can occur in adults too. This can cause red rashes and itchy spots on the child. They soon crust over and turn into scabs and fall off. The parent should be advised to see the GP for definite diagnosis. Paracetamol and soothing lotions will help with treatment.

Hand, foot and mouth disease
This will cause a mild non-itchy rash on the palms soles of feet and hands. Some children can also get ulcers inside and around their mouth. The treatment for this is paracetamol.

This is an acute viral illness. Symptoms can include high fever, runny nose and a rash that spreads from the face to the feet. Treatment for this plenty of fluids and paracetamol if the child id in pain.

This is a viral -illness that can start with flu symptoms and ends with a swelling of the glands. Mumps can last seven to ten days. Treatment for this is paracetamol and a cold compress to ease swelling in the glands.

This can also be referred to as German measles. It begins as a fever and a rash and can resolve itself within two to three days. Treatment for this is fluids and pain relief if needed.

3 Describe how infection may be spread in early years settings

Infection is spread different ways including:

Physical contact
This is from one person to another when their bodies touch
Contaminated items
Items which have germs on that children pick up and put in their mouths can spread infection this is why it is important to clean the toys and surfaces regularly. Within my setting we have a cleaning schedule, and this is done once a month on all the toys.
Bowel movements
Germs found in poo can cause diarrhoea. The best way to stop these germs spreading is to wash hands and keeping the toilet area clean. Within my room we have a schedule to check and clean the bathroom area regularly.
Exposure to blood
The smallest amount on broken skin can cause infections. This is why it is vital to wear ppe when cleaning any blood. Within my setting I would have to follow the bodily fluids procedure and clean this up using the bodily fluids bucket.
Droplet spreading
Coughs, colds, runny noses are ways droplets can be formed, these droplets can go in people’s mouth, eyes, nose or can be breathed in. Whenever you wiped a child’s nose or mouth you should dispose of the tissue and wash your hands immediately before touching anything else.

4 Describe legislation, regulations and guidance that apply to infection prevention and control in early years settings

Exclusion periods

5 Explain the immunisation programme for children and its role in infection control

It is recommended that all children are immunised. This helps prevent children getting certain illnesses and diseases and also helps prevent children carrying and passing on these illnesses within the setting also.
Understand how to assess health and safety risks in early years settings
1 Explain the risk assessment process

Risk assessments are a process that looks at and identify any hazards and risk factors that may cause harm to any one within the setting. The health and safety executive recommend that all settings carry out their risk assessments and risk managements following five steps as follows:
• Identify any hazards (things that may cause harm
• Decide who or what may be harmed and how the harm may take place (This is not just the responsibility of my manager but the responsibility of everyone within the setting. This also includes assessing risks for things such as trips out of the setting to places such as the farm.)
• Assess the risk and take actions (This means I should assess the risk and if it can cause harm I must take steps to reduce the level of risk for myself and for the children within the setting. Myself or my manager must also assess the risk as high, medium or low.)
• Make a recording of what has been found (Within this recording it contains any hazards and the action that was taken to reduce the risks. This record will provide proof that the assessment was carried out. This way when Ofsted ask for these documents they can be shown to them. All these records are locked away and are all kept.
• Review the risk assessment (All risk assessments must be reviewed this way management can make sure that all employees are following things that will keep them safe. It is also good to review risk assessments to be able to update them with any new information that may come into play. For example, if new equipment is put into the room the room risk assessment would have to be updated.
If all these steps are followed every time a risk assessment is carried out they will all be clear and easy to understand and follow.

2 Describe how to carry out a risk assessment and risk management in line with policies and procedures

In line with the policies and procedures within my setting its my duty fill out the room risk assessment every morning and every close of day. This form has a list of things within the room that I have to check to make sure that they are safe and not broken or damaged. These things are:
• Checking that all lights are in working order
• Checking that all floors are clear of spillages and any tears in the lino
• All windows are locked at close
• All plug sockets have covers in them
• All plugs are switched off at close
• All things in room are in working order
• Computer history checked (room supervisor)
• All registers are complete and up to date
• All first aid kits are fully stocked
• Bodily fluids bucket is stocked
• Stair way clean and safe for use
All these things I have to check and sign off one by one to say that I have checked them and that there is no problems with them. There is also a extra box at the bottom if any of these things are not working that you can write in here what is wrong and who you reported it. Every room has a daily checklist that needs filling out and they are all catered to the rooms risks. The garden has a risk assessment also that needs to be filled out daily by whoever sets up the garden and packs it away at close.

3 Explain how to assess infection and safety risks

Public health England have a guidance that childcare settings should follow when children have certain illnesses and infections. Also my setting has a policy on how to follow up on infections and illnesses within the setting and what we should do. If a child is unwell within the setting I have to follow the unwell child procedure this enables me to reduce the spread of infection to other children and staff within the room. The unwell policy is as follows:

PROCEDURE FOR MEETING AN UNWELL CHILD’S NEEDS At Little Cherubs we aim to ensure the unwell child’s needs are met whilst maintaining the remaining child’s needs and health and safety to minimise the risk of infection. The procedure to follow: 1. If a child becomes ill during the nursery day, we contact their parents and ask them to pick their child up as soon as possible. During this time we care for the child in a quiet, calm area with their key person wherever possible. 2. In the case of a high temperature parents will be asked to send an email giving permission to administer calpol (liquid paracetamol) stating the required dosage. Parents and carers must arrange collection of their child as soon as possible. 3. If parents cannot be contacted staff will refer to the child’s medication form to check parental permission to administer calpol (liquid paracetamol) staff will continue to try and contact parents/emergency contacts in order to collect the child. 4. If the child’s temperature continues to increase and there is a delay in the parent getting to nursery, the manager may deem it necessary to seek further medical advice and/or take the child to hospital. 5. If medication is given it will be recorded in the medicine book and a parental signature will be sought Area’s for caring for an unwell child If a child has an infection which can spread (e.g. sickness/diarrhoea) the following areas should be made comfortable and clear of the other children in the room where possible. Bright Beginnings – Unwell child to be cared for in the Cot Room (near to the nappy area) while other children are cared for in the Baby Room – Door to be kept open Tiny Tots – Unwell child to be cared for in the Messy Area (near to the nappy area/bathroom) while other children are cared for in the Small World Area or Garden
Little Learners – Unwell child to be cared for in the Messy Area (near the bathroom/nappy area) while other children are cared for in the Construction Area or Garden. Shooting Stars – Unwell child to be cared for in the Messy Area (near the bathroom) while other children are cared for in the Construction Area or Garden. During lunch time an unwell child will be kept at an appropriate distance from children.

Understand how to maintain records and reports

1 Explain the importance of maintaining accurate and coherent records and reports

It is important to maintain accurate and coherent records and reports of children for their general wellbeing. All children should be tracked and have reports written on them every term. This is so that you can track the child’s progress and make sure that the child is on track with the current guidelines for education (EYFS). Doing this will show you if the child is behind and what exact areas it is that they need help with if any. It also helps if the child is moving on to school or another setting you can write a descriptive report outlining all the child’s likes and dislikes. This is only possible if you have been tracking the child and keeping their observations up to date. Also when the child moves rooms you want all information on that child to be as clear and east to understand so that the child’s transition can be as smooth as possible for both the practitioner and the child.
Another reason is Ofsted will check these things when they come to assess the setting. This will show they weather or not the quality of teaching is up to date. They will be able to see is all practitioners are tracking and keeping good records of their key children. This way children get all the help they need and can be planned for effectively therefor giving them the best learning experience while in the setting.
Another reason is so that if there are any outside agencies that get involved and need to know details about the child, the hand over can be quick and easy with this. If records are clear, then outside agencies will have no issues in reading it and can get the best help for the child and gather all the information that they need.
In conclusion records have to be clear and coherent for the benefit of the child and everyone who comes into contact with that child. This in turn will then help the child to the best ability.

2 Explain how to maintain records and reports

The main way of maintaining records and reports of the children within the setting is using the EYLOG. This is an online system where all the children are tracked and making sure that they are hitting their developmental goals. Every time an observation is done on a child it is added to the eylog and automatically put on to their tracking. This is then put onto their leaning journey and parents will receive a notification informing them that a new observation of their child has been added. The parents and carers can make a comment on the observation and this goes through to the practitioner.
Every time a new child starts within the setting they are observed and upon six weeks of them being within the setting they have a starting point report that is done for them. This shows where they are in terms of development when they begin at the setting. This gives the practitioners the ability to see if the child needs any extra help if they are not meeting their developmental milestones.

3 Explain the importance of maintaining the confidentiality of records

Within the induction process all staff sign a confidentiality agreement and data protection policy which stipulates for staff to keep all things about staff and children confidential and is not to be disclosed outside of the setting.
Staff are not to disclose any information to anybody that is not attached to the nursery or other members of staff if we have been told by management. All data is locked away in the office and contains all the information about the children and their parents.
Information within the setting is given on a need to know basis. All information is handled to high standards following my settings policies and procedures to protect the childs right to privacy.
It is important to maintain confidentiality of records as you do not want information ending up in the wrong hands. For example, information about a child that attends my setting may have been written down as there are concerns for the child. If this information is left out the carers or even other carers may see it. This may ultimately end in the carers becoming very upset or even removing their child from the setting therefore making it harder for us as a setting to get the child the help it needs.
No information about children is shared unless the setting feels as though the setting is at risk. This then means the setting have to safeguard the child and to so this they need to share information with other people about that child to gain the help and guidance they need.