UNIVERSITY OF KWAZULU-NATAL
CHALLENGES FACED BY SMALL MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) IN TERMS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: A STUDY OF MNQUMA MUNICIPALITY, EASTERN CAPE
Student Name: Odwa Zintle Sityata
Student Number: 211513866
Master of Commerce (Coursework)
College of Law and Management Studies
Supervisor Dr S Suknunan
Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have become an important constituent of the South African economy. The SMEs are important for economic growth, creating jobs, reduces high levels of poverty and reducing levels of inequality. However, they are not immune to challenges that can hinder their progress. This study seeks to identify challenges experienced by SMEs in the Mnquma Municipality (Eastern Region) within the province of the Eastern Cape. This area experiences high level of poverty, inequality and unemployment. Development of SMEs in the region are the major contributor of local economic development and job creation. The study will also look into the managerial competencies needed by managers of these enterprises to cope with challenges as well as what can be done to alleviate the challenges faced by SMEs. .
The SME sector plays an important role in the economic development of rural provinces in South Africa, including Eastern Cape Provinces where majority of people depend on government grants. The role played by SMEs has encouraged the government to support rural-based businesses and upcoming entrepreneurs especially in rural areas (Nkonde, 2012).
Many changes that occurred within SMEs took place when democratic government was established in South Africa. What is known as Discussion Paper was the first change that took place and this was for SMEs in South Africa (Nxaba, 2014) this paper basically supported integration of support system for SME. After consultation with various stakeholders, an agreement was reached to officiate a refined strategy document which became a 1995 White Paper (Nxaba, 2014) upon to accept and officiate a refined strategy document which became a 1995 White Paper. The 1995 White Paper outlined, the need for Government to create an environment that enable legal framework, facilitate access to information and advice, boost procurement from small firms and to improve access to finance and affordable physical infrastructure (NCR, 2011)
The National Small Business Act No. 102 of (1996) followed the 1995 White paper which was responsible for ensuring an environment that developed and promoted SMEs. It outlined the ways in which the government has to create an environment for legal framework, facilitate access to information and advice, boost procurement from small firms and to improve access to finance and affordable physical infrastructure (NCR, 2011). Despite the support these businesses get from government and the role they play, more than 70 percent of these ventures fail within three years of establishment (Biyase, 2008). There are a number of challenges that are faced by managers that results to high failure rates of SME’s in this region. This study therefore intends to investigate challenges faced by SMEs in Mnquma Municipality and to determine how these challenges hinder growth and development of this businesses. Lastly this study intends to explore how lack of growth and development of these enterprises directly or indirectly affect their contribution towards local economic development of this area where most people depend on government grants for survival.
Background to the problem
This section will identify challenges faced SMEs in rural areas of South Africa especially in rural areas. This section will briefly address characteristics of SMEs in terms of formality, informality of business operation.
Definition of SMEs
SMEs has been defined various individuals and organizations as businesses that are either small or medium and different countries have different definitions of what SMEs are. Even though SMEs are defined differently they are common indicators employed in different definitions which include total assets, size of the labour force and annual turnover and capital investments (Abada et al, 2015).
SMEs can be defined as small enterprises that are ran by individuals for subsistence living purposes for either themselves or their employees (Nxaba, 2014).
SMEs are enterprises that do not form part of large enterprises but are rather small enterprises that run independently. These businesses are characterised by their little contribution to the gross domestic product, employment, exports and imports of the country (Abor, 2010). Abor (2010) explains that, most of these businesses, market share is the key component in identifying these businesses.
SMEs have been identified differently by various individuals and organizations, such that an enterprise that is considered small and medium in one country is viewed differently in another country. Some common indicators employed in the various definitions include total assets, size of the labor force employed, and annual turnover and capital investments
In South Africa, SMEs are mostly defined by the National Small Act 102 of 1996, divides these businesses into following categories:
Survivalist enterprise: This type of business makes less money and it is below poverty line. This Kind of enterprises are not registered and therefore known as informal businesses. E.g. street vendors and those that practices sustenance farming (NCR, 2011).
Micro enterprises: These businesses are also not registered and make an annual income that is less for tax registration. These enterprises have less 5 employs a year and they include taxi industry and tuckshops (Sitharam, 2014).
Very small enterprises: Most of these businesses are formal and have access to technology. They have less 10 employees. Mines and construction business make–part of these business but they have than more than 10 employees (Aigbavboa ; Thwala, 2014)
Small enterprise: They are more stable and established than most of enterprise that has been explained above. These enterprises less than 50 and more employees (NCR, 2011).
Medium enterprise: Such business has a 100 to 200 of employees. Medium enterprises include: manufacturing, mining, construction firms. One of main attributes of medium enterprise is the decentralisation of power to additional management layer (Aigbavboa ; Thwala, 2014).
Enterprise Size Number of Employees Annual Turnover (S A. Rand) Gross Assets, Excluding
Medium Fewer than 100 to 200, depending Less than R4 million to R50 m Less than R2 m to R18 m on Industry
Small Fewer than 50 Less than R2m to R25 m depending on Industry Less than R2m to R4.5 m depending on Industry
Very Small Fewer than 10 to 20
depending on Industry Less than R200 000 to R500 000 depending on Industry Less than R150 000 to R500 on Industry
Micro Fewer than 5 Less than R150 000 Less than R100 000
Table 1: Table above is summary of different categories of enterprises by the National Small Act 102 of 1996. Source: NCR (2011)
Characteristics of SMEs in South Africa
Defining the characteristics of SMEs in South Africa can form the foundation of identifying the challenges that are faced by respective s. For this study Formality and Informality of business operations are the characteristics of SMEs that will be discussed (Sitharam ; Horgue, 2016)
Participation of SMEs in the economy of the country, it is through the support from various government agencies and private institutions. This support, can be financial or operational, is obtained if an enterprise is formal (Fatoki.2014)
An SME is only formal if its name is recognized and has to be legally registered with the Companies and Intellectual Property Registration Office (CIPRO), tax revenue, value added tax (VAT) and other bodies, depending on the type of industry within which an SME operates (Nkonde, 2012).
The formality of an enterprise depends on its legal status. Issues such as the level of skills of employees in that enterprise influences the enterprise’s formality. This could be based on the assumption that if an enterprise does not have skilled personnel, the service will not be professional, thus affecting the formality of the business (Nkonde, 2012).
Informality of SMEs
Informality of SMEs includes all the business that are not licensed, VAT registered, do not have formal business premises, and without operating permit and accounting procedure (Sitharam and Horgue, 2016). If SME fails to comply with registration procedures that automatically means that an enterprise is informal and therefore cannot get support from government and private institutions. Informal SMEs are those that are not registered at all (Jere, 2014)
The majority of informal SMMEs operate in a survivalist mode, which means that the entrepreneur engages in business in order to survive. Most of these enterprises do not aspire to grow their business except to survive till the next day (Nkonde, 2012)
Importance of SMMEs for the economy of South Africa
South African SME’s contribute to 91 percent of formal business and has a contribution between 51 percent and 57 percent to the Gross Domestic Product and promotes 60 percent of employment in the country. A large number people in Mnquma Municipality and Eastern Cape directly and indirectly (Lekhanya, 2015).
The value of the small business sector is recognised in economies world-wide, irrespective of the economy’s developmental stage. The contribution towards growth, job creation and social progress is valued highly and small business is regarded as an essential element in a successful formula for achieving economic growth (NCR, 2011).
Small Medium Enterprise have both economic and social contributions. The economic contributions include economic growth, maintaining a favourable balance of payments and balance of trade and employment creation. The social contributions results in the reduction of poverty and better standards of living bringing about stability in the country (Davies, 2012)
Despite this acknowledged importance and SME contribution to economic growth, SMEs across the country especially in rural areas still are faced with many challenges that inhibit entrepreneurial growth, access to finance, poor management skills, lack of education and training (NCR, 2011).
Challenges faced by SMEs
Internal Challenges faced by SMEs
These are factors that affect the business internally; businesses have control over these factors.
Lack of Management skills
It is important for small business owners to get training for them to obtain the necessary skills to ensure the prolonged existence and accomplishment of their business (Sithram, 2014). Most business owners are not business positioned. They lack the critical business skills and experience needed to run their businesses effectively and efficiently (Jere, 2014). Training must be provided to the unskilled and inexperienced owners to run their businesses successfully (Fatoki, 2014)
Access to markets
Access to markets plays a vital role in the long-term existence of an enterprise. This has a huge impact into a competitive economy (Nxaba, 2014). The government has an imperative role to play by ensuring that a favourable regulatory environment prevails for entrepreneurs. In order for entrepreneurs to operate globally, it is important for them to first understand the different stages of the business activities in the various markets (Chimucheka & Mandipaka, 2015).
Different markets grow at different rates, and this is important for SMEs in South Africa to predict the market of the future to survive in a changing South Africa (Sitharam & Horgue, 2016). Due to the dynamics of marketing, the entrepreneur will have to be a person proficient in developing a clear marketing vision to adapt and achieve sustained growth in the next decade, SMEs need to address this market successfully (Cant & Wiid, 2013).
Mismanagement of resources
This is a common practice in businesses whereby entrepreneurs or managers reward themselves with huge amounts of money before realizing the prospects and projections of the business. This is a very common practice in small enterprise. It is the responsibility of business owners and managers to avoid using assets of the business for personal use at the expense of the business (Nxaba, 2014).Maladministration is closely associated with mismanagement , incompetence, dishonesty which involves a series of financial mismanagement which involves misappropriation of funds, disregards of processes and procedures involved in resources allocation for certain tasks , lack of budgeting ,lack of financial reporting and accountability(Beckmann et al, 2016)
Lack of capacity
Most of small businesses do not build capacity to sustain their future (van Aardt et al., 2008).
Business owners themselves have to strike progressive contracts with big organisations they go into consortiums with. The best way for the emerging businesses to grow is by transferring technology and expertise so that they are able to execute future contracts without help from the bigger companies over time (Nkonde, 2012).
Poor costing and pricing
Pricing is mainly about setting the correct price as part of the concept offering. If the pricing is wrong, the target market may not be interested and demand might drop. Pricing should be considered as part of the overall marketing strategy (Chimucheka & Manipaka, 2015).
A number of factors affect this decision of prices such as: the degree of competitive pressure, the availability of sufficient supply, seasonal or cyclical changes in demand, distribution costs, the product life-cycle stage, changes in production costs and prevailing economic conditions. Ultimate price decisions will balance many of these factors, and usually will not satisfy all the conditions. However, awareness of various factors is important (Nkonde, 2012).
External Challenges faced by SMEs
These are factors that affect the business externally; businesses do not have control over these factors.
Access to finance
Lack of access to financial support is widely viewed as the main problem facing entrepreneurs in South Africa (NCR, 2011). This report found out that 18% of the national experts in South Africa identified lack of adequate financial support as a major weakness in the national environment for entrepreneurial activity.
South African banks are characteristically accused of lending only to older, larger ‘white’ companies. They also require collateral that is too expensive for small business owners to afford especially those that are from disadvantaged backgrounds (Kuntchev et al, 2012). In most cases, many small businesses receive initial support investment from informal investors and business associates that have personal contact with the owner (Fatoki, 2014). Most new businesses receive initial support from informal investments, from family, friends, business associates and other personal contacts (Mutezo, 2014).
Access to appropriate finance is a major constraint in the thriving development of SMEs in South Africa (Mutezo, 2014).One of major problems when it comes to starting a new businesses is that, most entrepreneurs fail to secure funding by banks and other financial institutions (Kuntchev et al, 2012). Lack of availability of funds for small business is a major problem in developing this enterprises in many rural based regions and the Eastern Cape is no exception (Asah & Fatoki, 2011).
Competition consists of firms that fulfil the same customer needs or have the potential to serve those customers. A perfectly competitive markets, buyers or customers have no power other than to accept or reject the product offered
Many businesses render similar services/products to consumers and thus tightens the level of competition and in many instances these services or products are the same. This leads to competition based on lower prices rather than quality, service or other attributes, thus forces the businesses to lower their pricing and results to decline to profit margins (Lebeoa, 2017).
When products are the same, so there is no shopping around for quality, service, or other characteristics. The implication of this is that businesses are forced to lower their prices and therefore profit margins decline (Mwobobia, 2012).
Understanding the elements and the processes of the competitive market enables us to discover the forces that make an industry attractive to the entrepreneur (Mwobobia, 2012).These forces are Porters Five forces; the power of buyers, the power of suppliers, the threat of substitutes, the height of the entry barriers and the nature of rivalry between
Competitors (Lebeoa, 2017).
One of the major contributing factors to challenges faced by managers of SMEs is high taxes. Tax rates for registered SMEs is approximately 29% (Nkonde, 2012). This is the result of demand for the government to render good public services. Amongst negative effects of high tax is that it affects cash flow and hinders the business from growing through reinvestment and also affects the networking and working relationship between businesses (Fatoki, 2014).
SMEs inability to access resources prevents them from being productive. Entrepreneurial challenges are mostly attributed to management problems, indicating that there is a greater need for management skills especially in rural areas. The need for training in cash management and financial skills (Tehseen & Ramayah, 2015).
(Enkosi et al, 2013) argued, the importance for SMEs managers to have good financial management abilities. This will enable them to keep and manage their sales records efficiently. Some of entrepreneurial challenges are Labor and Regulations and the lack of Training and Education.
Labour and Regulations
Many SMEs are failing to attract and maintain suitable employees to meet high productivity demands. Small Medium Enterprises in rural-based areas are faced with challenges related to dealing with supply and demand of products and services, this affects the duration of employees in that particular business (Sitharam & Horgue, 2016). SMEs operate in environments that have flexible labour laws. It is important for managers to have knowledge of how export trades are regulated (Sitharam & Horque, 2016).Regulations maintains and enhances the way in which the business functions within big markets
Lack of Training and Education
In South Africa, lack of education is seen as one of the most significant barriers to entrepreneurial activity. Lack of management skills by SMEs owners and managers can also be attributed to lack of education and training (Nieman & Nieuwenhuizen, 2009).
Education and training assist with the development of competencies needed by managers in SMEs for the survival for these business. Management competencies are very important for success and development of these businesses in our country (Chimucheka, 2013).
A competency profile of 21st century manager includes to the ability to analyse, synthesise, solve problems, and have interpersonal skills which includes to motivate, communication skills that are needed by managers especially in SMEs to make sure that are able to cope in this technological driven society. Competence sets behaviors needed to do the job effectively (Drath & Horch, 2014).
Crime and Corruption
South Africa has high corruption rate, in South Africa, crime has been more widespread and has a negative impact on the survival of SMEs. Garwe & Olawale (2010) further state that, as a result of crime, most SMEs are not spending their resources on ensuring the growth and survival of their SMEs but rather on operational related issues because of crime.
In corporate South Africa Fraud and Corruption has been serious issues and SMEs are mostly affected as they do not have all the necessary resources to overcome it (Sithram, 2014). In most cases, SMEs view crime prevention measures to be very costly and not a necessity for most of their business (Cant & Wiid, 2013).
Small Business are the most vulnerable to crime and they are mostly affected when a massive loss has taken place which can threaten the very existence of those businesses (Cant and Wiid, 2013). They further elaborate that, the existence of these business are twice as threaten compared to larger businesses and this mostly occurs in developing countries such as South Africa (Sithram, 2014). Most SMEs do not have the influence and power like larger businesses and further state that bureaucracy and regulatory compliance are the main reason that SMEs get involved in crime and corruption (Sitharam & Horgue, 2016).
Mnquma Municipality is no exception, early this year. the late Mnquma municipal manager Sindile Tantsi was arrested on alleges of fraud and corruption of millions of rands which related to 10 million black bag in tender, guaranteed to Big Boy Events (Ltd) Pty (Mukhuthu, 2017).
Research Questions of this study
In light of the above problem statement and background, the study will attempt to answer the following questions:
What are the characteristics of SMEs of this region?
What are challenges faced by managers of SMEs in Mnquma Municipality?
Which managerial competencies are needed by SMEs managers in this region?
What can be done to promote the growth of these enterprises?
1.4 Research Objectives of this study
To determine characteristics of SMEs of this region.
To examine challenges faced by SMEs in Mnquma Municipality.
To determine what can be done to promote the growth of SMEs
To explore managerial competencies needed by SMEs managers in this region.
Theoretical Framework of the study
Two theories will be discussed for these studies and the theoretical framework of the study will be Resource Based View Theory and Core Competencies Theory as a second theoretical framework of the study. The study will seek to solve the problem statement of the study through the theoretical framework chosen by investigating the challenges faced by SMEs in Mnquma Municipality
Resource Based View Theory
According to (Kaaijenbrink et al, 2010), Resource-based View has become one of the most influential theories for the last 20 years. This theory explains how internal sources of the firm ensure that competitive advantage of the business is sustained. Resources based theory is one of the widely used and powerful theories that gives a description, explanation, prediction of the organizations interactions (Barney et al, 2011).
Das and Teng (2000) explains, that a resource based view theory of the firm has been systematically applied into strategic alliances. The view of the firm is based on the broad set of resources it owns. These resources can be both tangible and non-tangible and resource based theory focuses on the analysis of these various resources possessed by firm.
For the SMEs to implement resource-based theory and adoption of information and technology, it must first have certain elements or principles to guide or achieve in practices of their functions. This will lead to competitive advantage for the business:
• Resources must have strategic value to the firm
• Resource must be unique from competitors
• Imperfect imitability
• Non-substitutability of the resource (Ward & Caldeira, 2013)
Core Competencies Theory
Competence-based theory refers to competencies that are a source of strong competitive advantage. The theory further elaborates on the fact that, core competencies being valuable capabilities that are unique and collective in their attributes, and they strategically lead to the success of the business. Core competence strongly utilize and identify the strength of the organization. They also assist with development the competitive advantage of the organization. (Odero, 2013).
Core competence refers to the firm’s trend mark that makes the organization market leaders amongst competitors. Trend mark relates to the way that the firm does business and it comes from the organizational based knowledge, skills, technology, resources and the value chain that sets the organization apart from its competitors (Uysal, 2007).
These core competencies are the organization fundamental strength and should be developed with organizational capabilities and resources. To gain competitive advantage, it is important for core competencies to give potential access to different kind of markets, to also have a huge contribution to the way the customer benefit from the end product, and it must be difficult for competitors to duplicate (Prahalad ; Hamel, 1990).
Strategic management mission of any firm it is to establish the competitive advantage of the firm by allocating resource and capabilities in such a way that the organization can compete into the future. Therefore, the main role of strategic management field, it is the role of competencies and resources growth into the business (Uysal, 2007).
Core competencies are the organization fundamental strength and should be developed with organizational capabilities and resources. In order to gain competitive advantage, it is important for core competencies to give potential access to different kind of markets, to also have a huge contribution to the way the customer benefit from the end product, and it must be difficult for competitors to duplicate. Core competence development efforts are based on capabilities, resources, organizational learning, technology, and work teams (Prahalad ; Hamel, 1990).
Core Competencies are known the basic building blocks for the development of new business skills. Core products are the source of core competencies and the brand building programs aim to exploit economies of scope by manufacturing leadership to capture global shape (Prahalad ; Hamel, 1990)
Fig 1: Showing 18 different core competencies divided into three cluster groups. Source: https://cdn.ttgtmedia.com/rms/onlineImages/core_competency
Significance of the study
There are previous studies that have been conduct on growth and development challenges faced by SMEs. This study will focus growth and development challenges faced by SMEs in Mnquma Municipality in the Eastern Cape. The significance of this study, it is ensure the growth and development of SMEs. It is important to clearly understand challenges faced by managers to find solutions for these challenges.
This study will be useful to the SME sector since challenges are addressed and future recommendations are made. The study is further intended to increase the confidence and awareness of SMEs in using government support initiatives. The findings of this study will be helpful to both SMEs and individual entrepreneur.
Justification of Study
This study is important because it will give more insight of challenges that are faced senior managers of SMEs in Mnquma Municipality. And further make recommendations on how to resolve these issue.
Research design is mostly focused on all the steps in the process and end-product to the achieved outcome (Vorsloo, 2014). Detailed plan on how the research will be conducted forms part of research design. The main function of this plan includes the research methods and procedures that are linked together in order to get validity of data for empirically grounded analyses and eventual results. Research design therefore provides the researcher with a clear framework, it guides the methods (Welman et al, 2009).
This study will adopt a qualitative research method which is holistically about discovering the subject matter. This research method, is also known as unfolding model that occurs in natural setting allows the researcher to draw detail from their involvement into the experience. Qualitative research methods involve the description, explanation and interpretation of data that is collected by the research (Williams, 2007).
There are a few advantages of qualitative approach that makes this approach a suitable method for this study. Firstly, qualitative research approach produces a detailed description and interpretation of opinions of the participants (Rahman, 2017). Rahman (2017) further explains that, qualitative approach gives a deeper insight of the issues being investigated.
Secondly, this approach gives the researcher an opportunity to examine the participant’s experiences and to try and find meaning that shapes the culture of the area being researched. During data collection, the researcher and participants has direct contact, therefore data collection is very detailed and subjective (Rahman, 2017). Qualitative method has an interactive approach that allows a flexible structure of a design that is structured in such a way that allows easy analyses and understanding of complex issues (Rahman, 2017).
Both primary and secondary data will be will be used in this study. Primary data will be gathered using quantitative research method and questionnaires will be conducted in the collection of data. Secondary Data were gathered through literature review whereby textbooks, journals and electronic means were used to collect secondary data
Sampling refers to the process of selecting subset from the population of interest in order to fairly generate results back to the population they were chosen from (Vorsloo, 2014).
There are two types of sampling methods, probability sampling and non-probability sampling and the type of sampling that is used in a research depends on the goals of researcher (Setia, 2016).
Probability sampling will be used for this study because probability provides and advantage that enables the researcher to be able to calculate error and specific business when it comes to collecting the data. Probability gives the opportunity for a subject or unit an equal chance of being selected (Acharya et al, 2013).
Simple random sampling method will be used for this study were every individual have the same opportunity to be selected from population. The advantages of this method are that minimal knowledge about the population is needed, the internal as well as external validity is high and it is easy to analyse data (Acharya et al, 2013). A simple sampling method will be employed to conduct interviews to the owners and managers of these SMEs in the area, all the formal and registered small enterprises comprised of several restaurants, coffee shops, salons, butcheries and internet café in this area.
A simple random sampling method will be employed to conduct structured interview to the owners and managers of these SMEs. The municipal database will be used to extract the sampling frame, to address the research questions relating to challenges face by SMEs in Mnquma Municipality.
The study site Mnquma Municipality is local municipality that forms part of Amathole District in the Eastern Part of the province of Eastern Cape with approximately 252390 people, with 99% of the total population are Xhosa speaking and the 1% is made up of other language speaking people such as English and isiZulu (Mnquma Municipality, 2007). Amathole District Municipality covers approximately 329950240km² and consists of 31 wards, whilst Mnquma Municipality population is made up of approximately 54% female and 46% males with closely 75410 household which mostly are administered rural areas (Mnquma Municipality, 2007).
Fig 2: Map showing Mnquma Municipality
(Source- Google Maps, 2018)
All the formal and registered small enterprises comprised of several restaurants, coffee shops, salons, butcheries and internet café in this area.
Data collection method
Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. Secondary data were gathered by way of a thorough literature review. Text books, journals and electronic means were used to collect secondary data. To gather primary data interviews will be conducted in the collection of data
Interview is a meeting where speakers meet to produce different versions of the past and future actions, experience, feelings and thoughts. There are two types of interviews namely focus group interviews and structured interviews (Mafuwane, 2012). In this study the researcher will use structured interviews.
A structured interview will be designed using levels of measurement. Open-ended questions will be used in the interview to enable the interviewer to add any questions during the interviewing process, depending on how participant response.
Piloting of interview will also be done, whereby ten questionnaires will be piloted to the respondents to check if the approach was appropriate and would function effectively. Therefore, the questionnaire will be (if required). Permission to conduct the research will be requested from Mnquma Municipality. The municipality’s database will be used to extract a sample.
Data Quality Control
Validity and reliability expresses broader concepts used for quantitative research data, than other concepts that are usually associated with quantitative research methods (Mafuwane, 2012). The concept of validity in quantitative research determines if the measurement instruments to whether the tools of measurement are accurate in measuring what they meant to measure
Reliability refers to the accuracy of the outcomes of the population that is consistently represented over time. For example, if the same results can be produced over time under the same condition therefore they can consider those results reliable (Sitharam, 2014).
First procedure for ensuring validity and reliability in this study is peer review, this procedure gives the researcher support and challenges him/her researcher to push to the researcher to the next step (Mafuwane, 2012).
This procedure will be done for the Data Collection and Analyses stage in order to make sure that the results are reliable and valid. The peer reviewers will be two of my friend, one currently pursuing their PhD here in the University of KwaZulu Natal and other having obtained their PhD in the same institution.
Second procedure will be Pre-testing which determines the last stage of improving results and ensuing that they are accurately represent the results. The researcher will use three Masters of Commerce students from the College of Management, Information Technology ; Governance to test the accuracy and the appropriateness of questionnaires.
Before processing with the research, I will apply for gate keeper’s letter from Mnquma Municipality. To make sure that human dignity is upheld in this research, the researcher will obtain Ethical Clearance from the University Ethical Committee. Participants will be given consent to make sure that the decision to voluntarily participant in the study. Privacy and Confidentiality will be upheld to protect the respondents by keeping them anonymous and certain personal information away from public.
Timeline for Research Dissertation
Description of Work Due Dates
Research Proposal Submission 20-April-2018
Ethical Clearance 15-May-2018
Chapter 2-Literature Review 19-May-2018
Chapter 3-Research Methodology 20-June-2018
Chapter 4-Data collection and Analyses 3-August-2018
Chapter 5-Recommendations and Conclusion 3-September-2018
Final Coursework Dissertation – spiral bound copies 31-October-2018